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    * Zaydid *


    (Wikipedia) - Alid dynasties of northern Iran   (Redirected from Zaydid) "Zaydids" redirects here. For the Shia religious community, see Zaidiyyah.
    Zaydi Alid dynasties of northern Iran
    علویون طبرستان تبرسّون ِعلویون
    ←   ← 864–900 914–928 →   →


    Map of the Alid Emirate
    Capital Amul
    Languages Arabic, Mazandarani
    Religion Zaydi Shi''a Islam
    Government Theocratic monarchy
     -  864–884 (first) Hasan ibn Zayd al-Da''i ila''l-Haqq
     -  927–928 (last) Hasan ibn Qasim al-Da''i ila''l-Haqq
    Historical era Middle Ages
     -  Established 864
     -  Disestablished 928
    Alid-era art: Bowl with white slip, incised design, colored, and glazed. Excavated at Sabz Pushan, Nishapur, Iran. 9th-early 10th century. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. History of Greater Iran Until the rise of modern nation-states Pre-modern
    Proto-Elamite civilization 3200–2800 BC
    Elamite dynasties 2800–550 BC
    Jiroft culture
    Bactria-Margiana Complex 2200–1700 BC
    Kingdom of Mannai 10th–7th century BC
    Median Empire 728–550 BC
    Scythian Kingdom 652–625 BC
    Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC
    Seleucid Empire 330–150 BC
    Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 250–125 BC
    Parthian Empire 248–BC 224
    Kushan Empire 30–275
    Sasanian Empire 224–651
    Afrighid dynasty 305–995
    Hephthalite Empire 425–557
    Kabul Shahi kingdom 565–879
    Dabuyid dynasty 642–760
    Alania 8th–9th century–1238/1239
    Patriarchal Caliphate 637–651
    Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
    Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
    Tahirid dynasty 821–873
    Zaydis of Tabaristan 864–928
    Saffarid dynasty 861–1003
    Samanid Empire 819–999
    Sajid dynasty 889/890–929
    Ziyarid dynasty 928–1043
    Buyid dynasty 934–1055
    Sallarid dynasty 941–1062
    Ghaznavid Empire 975–1187
    Ghurid dynasty before 879–1215
    Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
    Khwarazmian dynasty 1077–1231
    Ilkhanate 1256–353
    Kartids dynasty 1231–389
    Muzaffarid dynasty 1314–1393
    Chupanid dynasty 1337–1357
    Jalairid Sultanate 1339–1432
    Timurid Empire 1370–1506
    Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans 1407–1468
    Aq Qoyunlu Turcomans 1378–1508
    Safavid Empire 1501–1722
    Mughal Empire 1526–1857
    Hotaki Empire 1722–1729
    Afsharid dynasty 1736–1750
    Zand dynasty 1750–1794
    Durrani Empire 1794–1826
    Qajar dynasty 1794–1925
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    In the 9th–14th centuries, the northern Iranian regions of Tabaristan, Daylam and Gilan, sandwiched between the Caspian Sea and the Alborz range, came under the rule of a number of Alid dynasties, espousing the Zaydi branch of Shi''ism. The first and most powerful Zaydi emirate was established in Tabaristan in 864 and lasted until 928. It was interrupted by Samanid occupation in 900, but restored in 914 by another Alid branch. The second period of the Alid emirate was plagued by internal dissensions and power struggles between the two branches, and ended in the second conquest of the region by the Samanids in 928. Subsequently, some of the soldiers and generals of the Alavids joined the Samanids, among them the founder of the Ziyarid dynasty, Mardavij, and Ali, Hassan and Ahmad, the sons of Buya and founders of the Buyid dynasty.

    Local Zaydi rulers survived in Daylam and Gilan until the 16th century.

    List of Zaydi emirs and imams of Tabaristan Further information: Zaydis and History of Tabaristan
    • Hasan ibn Zayd, adopted the regnal name al-Da''i ila''l-Haqq (864–884). He was forced to abandon Tabaristan briefly for Daylam in 869 and 874 due to invasions
    • Muhammad ibn Zayd, also adopted the regnal name al-Da''i ila''l-Haqq (884–900). Rule in Tabaristan proper was usurped by Abu''l-Husayn Ahmad ibn Muhammad for a few months as Muhammad was in Gurgan at the time of Hasan''s death. Tabaristan was overrun briefly by Rafi ibn Harthama in 891–893, and in 900 Muhammad tried to conquer Khurasan, but was defeated and killed by the Samanids. The Samanids captured Tabaristan, and the Alavids fled to Daylam in exile (900-913).
    • Hasan ibn Ali al-Utrush, adopted the regnal name al-Nasir li''l-Haqq (914–917). A Husaynid from Medina, he converted the Gilites and Daylamites to the Zaydi doctrine, recovered Tabaristan.
    • Abu Muhammad Hasan ibn Qasim, also adopted the regnal name al-Da''i ila''l-haq (917–919, 919–923, 927–928). A Hasanid, he was the commander of the army under al-Utrush and named by the latter as his heir. His rule was challenged by al-Utrush''s sons and their numerous supporters (the "Nasiris"), who seized power twice, briefly in 919 and again in 923. Regained the throne with the help of Makan ibn Kaki, ruled until he was killed in battle with Asfar ibn Shiruya.
    • Abu ''l-Husayn Ahmad ibn Hasan, surnamed Nasir (919, 923). Reigned jointly with his brother in 919, thereafter reconciled himself with Abu Muhammad Hasan al-Da''i until 923, when he reigned briefly until his death.
    • Abu ''l-Qasim Ja''far ibn Hasan, surnamed Nasir (919, 923–925). Reigned jointly with his brother in 919 and from 923 until his death.
    • Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Abu ''l-Husayn Ahmad, surnamed Nasir (925–927). Son of Ahmad ibn Hasan, he was chosen as emir after Ja''far died. Deposed briefly by Makan ibn Kaki, who installed Isma''il ibn Ja''far as a puppet ruler, regained the throne with the aid of Asfar ibn Shiruya.
    • Abu Ja''far Husayn ibn Abu ''l-Husayn Ahmad, surnamed Nasir (927). Brother of Abu Ali Muhammad, he was deposed by Makan ibn Kaki, who brought back Abu Muhammad Hasan al-Da''i. Installed once more as imam briefly by Asfar ibn Shiruya under Samanid suerainty, but later removed to the Samanid court at Bukhara. Tried to recover Tabaristan in 931 with the help of Mardavij, but failed.

    Tags:Abbasid, Abbasid Caliphate, Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Alborz, Arabic, Asfar, Bactria, Bukhara, Caliphate, Capital, Caspian, Caspian Sea, Dabuyid dynasty, Elamite, Gilan, Greater Iran, Greco, Hotaki, Ilkhanate, Imam, Iran, Iranian, Islam, Islamic, Jiroft, Kabul, Makan, Mardavij, Margiana, Medina, Metropolitan, Middle Ages, Mughal, Mughal Empire, Muzaffarid, New York, Parthian, Parthian Empire, Prehistory, Proto-Elamite, Qajar, Safavid, Safavid Empire, Saffarid, Samanid, Seleucid, Shahi, Shia, Tahirid, Timurid, Umayyad, Wikipedia, Zand, Zaydid

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