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    * Transport in Iran *

    ترابری در ایران

    (Wikipedia) - Transport in Iran Major routes and railways of Iran

    Transport in Iran is inexpensive because of the government''s subsidization of the price of gasoline. The downside is a huge draw on government coffers, economic inefficiency because of highly wasteful consumption patterns, contraband with neighboring countries and air pollution. In 2008, more than one million people worked in the transportation sector, accounting for 9% of GDP.

    Iran has a long paved road system linking most of its towns and all of its cities. In 2011 the country had 173,000 kilometres (107,000 mi) of roads, of which 73% were paved. In 2008 there were nearly 100 passenger cars for every 1,000 inhabitants.

    Trains operated on 11,106 km (6,942 mi) of railroad track. The country’s major port of entry is Bandar-Abbas on the Strait of Hormuz. After arriving in Iran, imported goods are distributed throughout the country by trucks and freight trains. The Tehran-Bandar-Abbas railroad, opened in 1995, connects Bandar-Abbas to the railroad system of Central Asia via Tehran andc Mashhad. Other major ports include Bandar e-Anzali and Bandar e-Torkeman on the Caspian Sea and Khorramshahr and Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni on the Persian Gulf.

    Dozens of cities have airports that serve passenger and cargo planes. Iran Air, the national airline, was founded in 1962 and operates domestic and international flights. All large cities have mass transit systems using buses, and several private companies provide bus service between cities. Tehran, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tabriz, Ahwaz and Esfahan are in the process of constructing underground mass transit rail lines.


    Ministry of Road and Transportation Main article: Ministry of Roads and Transportation (Iran) See also: Government of Iran, Iran Post and Iranian Economic Reform Plan

    The Ministry of Roads and Transportation is in charge of studying and deciding pricing policy of the transportation; as well as issuing licenses for the establishment of transportation firms. In addition, the Ministry is in charge of implementing comprehensive and integrated transportation policies in Iran.

    RailwaysRailway system map (09-2006)Main articles: Islamic Republic of Iran Railways and Iranian railway industry

    Electrified railway is 146 km from Tabriz to Jolfa and the tender for electrification of Tehran- Mashhad has been finished according to Railway electrification in Iran. Note: Broad-gauge track is employed at the borders with Azerbaijan Republic and Turkmenistan which have 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) broad gauge rail systems; 41 km of the standard gauge, electrified track is in suburban service at Tehran (2007).

    The majority of transportation in Iran is road-based. The government plans to transport 3.5% of the passenger volume and 8.5% of the freight volume by rail. Extensive electrification is planned. The railway network expands by about 500 km per year according to the Ministry of R&T.

    Railway links with adjacent countries Couplings, Brakes and Electrification Metro Main articles: Rapid transit in Iran, Tehran Metro and Tehran Bus Rapid TransitTehran Metro

    Along with extension work on the Tehran Metro, six other metro projects are being built. In total, 172 extra kilometers will be built in Tehran between now and 2012 and over 380 kilometers in the other cities. All these work sites are going at present (2008).

    Roadways and automobiles See also: List of highways in Iran, Iranian automobile industry and Environmental issues in IranTehran-Karaj road link

    Note: there were more than 11 million vehicles in Iran by 2010 mostly manufactured or assembled locally.

    Road accidents See also: International rankings of Iran in transport, Drunk driving in Iran and Traffic police of IranTransportation in Iran is inexpensive because of the government''s subsidization of gasoline

    Iran ranks first worldwide in terms of having the largest number of road accidents with 38,000 deaths and injuries per year. Other sources place the total number of fatalities at 100,000 over the past 6 years or 20,000 per year on average (2008). Currently, road accidents account for a majority of deaths in Iran. Transport officials say 46.8 percent of car accidents take place in cities, 21.5 percent outside, 19.5 percent on rural routes, 4.2 percent on urban highways and 4.2 percent on suburban highways.

    The high death tolls in car accidents are blamed on high speed, unsafe vehicles, widespread disregard of traffic laws and inadequate emergency services.

    Motorcycles account for 50 percent of sound pollution in Tehran and 40-45 percent of accidents.

    Waterways See also: Geography of Iran

    850 km (on Karun River; additional service on Lake Urmia) (2006)

    Note: the Shatt al-Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is in use.

    Pipelines See also: Ministry of Petroleum of Iran and Petroleum industry in IranIran - Oil & natural gas infrastructure Ports and harbors See also: Iran Shipping LinesAs at 2012, the Kharg oil terminal is handling about 98% of Iran''s crude exports.

    The capacity of container loading and unloading in the country’s ports is currently at 4.4 million which will increase to 7 million by the end of 2015. Port capacity will increase to 200 million tons in 2015 from 150 million tons in 2010.

    Merchant marine See also: Iran Shipping Lines, National Iranian Tanker Company and Naval industry in IranThe International Maritime Organization has 140 member states with Iran ranking among the top 20

    Over the next two decades, Iran would need 500 new ships, including 120 oil tankers, 40 liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers and over 300 commercial vessels.

    Airports and airlines Main articles: List of airports in Iran and Airlines of IranBoeing 747SP at Narita International Airport

    Iran’s airports are improving their international connections, and Arak Airport in Markazi province has recently begun to operate international flights, making a total of five such airports in the country, in addition to ten local airports. In May 2007 international flights into the capital, Tehran, were moved to the Imam Khomeini International Airport (IKIA), just outside the city because of capacity constraints at the existing central Mehrabad Airport.

    National airline:

    Airports - with paved runways

    Total: 129 (2007)

    over 3,047 m: 402,438 to 3,047 m: 281,524 to 2,437 m: 25914 to 1,523 m: 34under 914 m: 6 (2009)Airports - with unpaved runways

    Total: 183 (2007)

    over 3,047 m: 11,524 to 2,437 m: 9914 to 1,523 m: 139under 914 m: 33 (2009)Heliports

    Total: 19 (2009)

    Transit statistics See also: Customs, tariffs and smuggling in IranIran''s non-oil foreign trade (2011).People See also: Tourism in Iran and Human trafficking in Iran Commodities Mode of transport Port of entry See also: Geography of Iran Economics See also: Economy of Iran TRACECA See also: North-South Transport Corridor and Persian Royal Road & Silk Road

    In September 2009, Iran formally joined the Transport Corridor EuropeCaucasusAsia (TRACECA) programme, also known as the "new Silk Road." TRACECA was founded in 1998 with the aim of promoting economic relations, trade and transport communications between Europe, the Caucasus and Asia. This programme consists of the EU and 14 member states (including Iran) from Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. Iran’s strategic location means that it is a key transport corridor between Europe and Central Asia.

    In August 2010, Iran declared that it "did not sign on to TRACECA project" and said it has been fostering improved transport links through a series of bilateral agreements with neighboring states instead. According to Iran''s first Vice-President Mohammad-Reza Rahimi "If all the potential of the country''s transit sector is tapped, it can bring in as much revenues as oil ". He also announced that Iran will join China and Europe by rail in the near future.

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