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    * Susa *

    Shush, Shushan

    شوش


    Elamite_Susa_Embossed_Untash_Napirisha.jpg
    Ancient city capital of Elam; ruins in SW Iran (Wikipedia) - Susa "Shushan" redirects here. For other uses, see Shushan (disambiguation). For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). Susa Location Region Coordinates Type History Founded Abandoned
    شوش (Persian)
    Tepe of the Royal city (left) and of the Acropolis (right), seen from the Hill mound of the Apadana in Susa.
    Shown within Iran
    Shush, Khuzestan Province, Iran
    Zagros Mountains
    32°11′26″N 48°15′28″E / 32.19056°N 48.25778°E / 32.19056; 48.25778Coordinates: 32°11′26″N 48°15′28″E / 32.19056°N 48.25778°E / 32.19056; 48.25778
    Settlement
    Approximately 4000 BCE
    1218 CE
    Part of a series on theHistory of Iran
    Mythological history
    Ancient period
    • Proto-Elamite (3200–2700 BCE)
    • Elam (2700–539 BCE)
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    Susa (/ˈsuːsə/; Persian: شوش‎ Shush ; Greek: Σοῦσα ; Syriac: ܫܘܫ Shush; Old Persian Çūšā-; Hebrew שׁוּשָׁן Shushān) was an ancient city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires of Iran. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about 250 km (160 mi) east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers.

    The modern Iranian town of Shush is located at the site of ancient Susa. Shush is the administrative capital of the Shush County of Iran''s Khuzestan province. It had a population of 64,960 in 2005.

    Contents

    HistoryMap showing the area of the Elamite kingdom (in red) and the neighboring areas. The approximate Bronze Age extension of the Persian Gulf is shown.

    In historic literature, Susa appears in the very earliest Sumerian records: for example, it is described as one of the places obedient to Inanna, patron deity of Uruk, in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta.

    Susa is also mentioned in the Ketuvim of the Hebrew Bible by the name Shushan, mainly in Esther, but also once each in Nehemiah and Daniel. Both Daniel and Nehemiah lived in Susa during the Babylonian captivity of the 6th century BCE. Esther became queen there, and saved the Jews from genocide. A tomb presumed to be that of Daniel is located in the area, known as Shush-Daniel. The tomb is marked by an unusual white stone cone, which is neither regular nor symmetric. Many scholars believe it was at one point a Star of David. Susa is further mentioned in the Book of Jubilees (8:21 & 9:2) as one of the places within the inheritance of Shem and his eldest son Elam; and in 8:1, "Susan" is also named as the son (or daughter, in some translations) of Elam.

    Greek mythology attributed the founding of Susa to king Memnon of Aethiopia, a character from Homer''s Trojan War epic, the Iliad.

    Proto-Elamite

    In urban history, Susa is one of the oldest-known settlements of the region. Based on C14 dating, the foundation of a settlement there occurred as early as 4395 BCE (a calibrated radio-carbon date). Archeologists have dated the first traces of an inhabited Neolithic village to c 7000 BCE. Evidence of a painted-pottery civilization has been dated to c 5000 BCE. Its name in Elamite was written variously Ŝuŝan, Ŝuŝun, etc. The origin of the word Susa is from the local city deity Inshushinak. Like its Chalcolithic neighbor Uruk, Susa began as a discrete settlement in the Susa I period (c 4000 BCE). Two settlements called Acropolis (7 ha) and Apadana (6.3 ha) by archeologists, would later merge to form Susa proper (18 ha). The Apadana was enclosed by 6m thick walls of rammed earth. The founding of Susa corresponded with the abandonment of nearby villages. Potts suggests that the city may have been founded to try to reestablish the previously destroyed settlement at Chogha Mish. Susa was firmly within the Uruk cultural sphere during the Uruk period. An imitation of the entire state apparatus of Uruk, proto-writing, cylinder seals with Sumerian motifs, and monumental architecture, is found at Susa. Susa may have been a colony of Uruk. As such, the periodization of Susa corresponds to Uruk; Early, Middle and Late Susa II periods (3800–3100 BCE) correspond to Early, Middle, and Late Uruk periods.

    By the middle Susa II period, the city had grown to 25 ha. Susa III (3100–2900 BCE) corresponds with Uruk III period. Ambiguous reference to Elam (Cuneiform;

    Tags:Abbasid, Abbasid Caliphate, Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Acropolis, Apadana, Archaeology, Atabegs of Yazd, Atropatene, Bible, Bronze Age, Caliphate, Damavand, Elam, Elamite, Esther, Greek, Hebrew, History of Iran, Hotaki, Ilkhanate, Iran, Iranian, Islamic, Islamic Republic, Islamic Republic of Iran, Khuzestan, Khuzestan Province, Lord, Memnon, Muzaffarid, Old Persian, Pahlavi, Parthian, Parthian Empire, Persian, Persian Gulf, Pishdadian, Post, Proto-Elamite, Qajar, Safavid, Safavid Empire, Saffarid, Samanid, Sassanid, Seleucid, Shush, Susa, Tahirid, Tigris, Timurid, Timurid dynasty, Umayyad, Wikipedia, Yazd, Zagros, Zagros Mountains, Zand


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