• Login/Register
  • Alphabetic Index : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    Search β):

    * Reporters Without Borders *

    گزارشگران بدون مرز


    Iranian_Flag_Hand_Love_Heart.jpg
    (Wikipedia) - Reporters Without Borders Reporters Without Borders Formation Type Headquarters Director General Budget Staff Website
    Reporters Sans Frontières
    1985
    non-profit, non-governmental organization with consultant status at the United Nations
    Paris, France
    Christophe Deloire (since July 2012)
      Income: €4.2 million (2011) Expense: €4.6 million (2011)
    Approximately 120
    en.rsf.org
    Head office, Paris

    Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is a France-based international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press. The organization has consultant status at the United Nations.

    Reporters Without Borders has two primary spheres of activity: one is focused on Internet Censorship and the New Media, and the other on providing material, financial and psychological assistance to journalists assigned to dangerous areas. Its missions are to:

    Contents

    Background

    Reporters Without Borders was founded in 1985, by Robert Ménard, Rémy Loury, Jacques Molénat and Émilien Jubineau, in Montpellier, France. Its head office is in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris. RWB also maintains offices in Berlin, Brussels, Geneva, Madrid, Rome, Stockholm, Tunis, Vienna, and Washington, D.C.

    At first, the association worked to promote alternative journalism, but there were disagreements between the founders. Finally, only Robert Ménard stayed and he changed the organization''s direction towards promoting freedom of the press. Reporters Without Borders states that it draws its inspiration from Article 19 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, according to which everyone has "the right to freedom of opinion and expression" and also the right to "seek, receive and impart" information and ideas "regardless of frontiers."

    Robert Ménard was RWB''s first Secretary General. Jean-François Julliard succeeded Ménard in 2008. Christophe Deloire succeeded Julliard in July 2012 when he became Director General.

    Reporters Without Borders'' primary means of direct action are appeals to government authorities through letters or petitions, as well as frequent press releases. Through its world-wide network of roughly 150 correspondents, RWB gathers information and conducts investigations of press freedom violations by region (Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and North Africa, and the Americas) or topic. If necessary, it will send a team of its own to assess working conditions for journalists in a specific country. It releases annual reports on countries as well as the Press Freedom Index. It has launched advertising campaigns with the pro bono assistance of advertising firms to raise public awareness of threats to freedom of information and freedom of the press, to undermine the image of countries that it considers enemies of freedom of expression, and to discourage political support by the international community for governments that attack rather than protect freedom of information.

    RWB also provides assistance for journalists and media who are either in danger or are having difficulty subsisting. They provide money to assist exiled or imprisoned journalists and their families and the unsupported families of journalists who have been killed; to enable journalists to leave their home countries if they are in danger there; to repair the effects of vandalism on media outlets; to cover the legal fees of journalists who have been prosecuted for their writings or the medical bills of those who have been physically attacked; and upon occasion, to provide bullet-proof vests for use by journalists.

    Partners

    Reporters Without Borders is a founding member of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, a virtual network of non-governmental organizations that monitors free expression violations worldwide and defends journalists, writers and others who are persecuted for exercising their right to freedom of expression.

    RWB has a presence in 150 countries through local correspondents who act as information relays and through close collaborations with local and regional press freedom groups, including:

    Country Organization
    Bangladesh Bangladesh Centre for Development, Journalism and Communication (BCDJC)
    Belarus Belarusian Association of Journalists (BAJ)
    Burma Burma Media Association (BMA)
    Colombia Ceso-FIP (Solidarity Centre-International Federation of Journalists)
    Colombia Colombian Federation of Journalists (FECOLPER)
    Democratic Republic of Congo Journalist In Danger (JED)
    Eritrea Association of Eritrean Journalists in Exile
    Honduras Committee for Free Expression (C-Libre)
    Iraq Journalistic Freedom Observatory (JFO)
    Kazakhstan Journalists in Danger
    Mexico Centre for Journalism and Public Ethics (CEPET)
    Pakistan Tribal Union of Journalists (TUJ)
    Romania Media Monitoring Agency
    Russia Glasnost Defence Foundation (GDF)
    Somalia National Union of Somali Journalists (NUSOJ)
    Sri Lanka Journalists for Democracy in Sri Lanka (JDS)
    Thailand Thai Netizen Network (TNN)
    Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Journalists for Human Rights (ZJHR)
    Awards received

    Through the years RWB has received a number of awards, including:

    Publications

    Reporters Without Borders issues press releases, fact finding reports, and periodical publications. It publishes periodic mission reports on developments in individual countries or regions or on a specific topic. Each December it publishes an annual overview of events related to freedom of information and the safety of journalists. It maintains a web site (www.rsf.org) accessible in six languages (French, English, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, and Farsi).

    World Press Freedom Index2014 World Press Freedom Index
      Very serious situation   Difficult situation   Noticeable problems   Satisfactory situation   Good situation   Not classified / No data
    Main article: Press Freedom Index

    RWB compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organization''s assessment of their press freedom records. Small countries, such as Andorra, are excluded from this report.

    The report is based on a questionnaire sent to partner organizations of Reporters Without Borders (14 freedom of expression groups in five continents) and its 130 correspondents around the world, as well as to journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists.

    The survey asks questions about direct attacks on journalists and the media as well as other indirect sources of pressure against the free press. RWB is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom, and does not measure the quality of journalism. Due to the nature of the survey''s methodology based on individual perceptions, there are often wide contrasts in a country''s ranking from year to year.

    Predators of Press Freedom

    Starting in 2001 Reporters Without Borders has published its annual Predators of Press Freedom list which highlights what it feels are the worst violators of press freedom.

    In May 2013 RWB named 39 leaders or groups as Predators of Freedom of Information:

    Two leaders and three groups were dropped from the list of predators in May 2013:

    Press Freedom Barometer

    RWB maintains a "Press Freedom Barometer" on its web site showing the number of journalists, media assistants, netizens, and citizen journalists killed or imprisoned during a year.

    Killed Imprisoned Year Journalists Media assistants Netizens Journalists Media assistants Netizens
     
    2014 28 6 12 167 11 183
    2013 71 6 39 826 127
    2012 89 6 48 879 144
    2011 67 2 4 1044 199
    2010 58 1 0 535 152
    2009 75 1 0 573 151
    2008 61 1 0 673 59
    2007 87 22 0  
    2006 84 32 0  
    2005 64 5 0  
    2004 63 16 0  
    2003 43 3 0  
    2002 25 4 0  
  • ^ Through 21 June 2014
  • Handbooks for journalists and bloggers

    Over the years, RWB has published several handbooks to provide assistance to journalists and bloggers, and to raise public awareness, including:

    Enemies of the Internet and Countries under surveillance lists

    In conjunction with its World Day Against Cyber Censorship, RWB updates its Enemies of the Internet and Countries under surveillance lists.

    In 2006, Reporters without Borders (Reporters sans frontières, RSF), a Paris-based international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, started publishing a list of "Enemies of the Internet". The organization classifies a country as an enemy of the internet because "all of these countries mark themselves out not just for their capacity to censor news and information online but also for their almost systematic repression of Internet users." In 2007 a second list of countries "Under Surveillance" (originally "Under Watch") was added. Both lists are updated annually.

    Enemies of the Internet:

    •  Bahrain: 2012 to present
    •  Belarus: 2006-2008, 2012 to present
    •  Burma: 2006 to 2013
    •  China: 2008 to present
    •  Cuba: 2006 to present
    •  Egypt: 2006-2010
    •  Ethiopia: 2014 to present
    •  India: 2014 to present
    •  Iran: 2006 to present
    •  North Korea: 2006 to present
    •  Pakistan: 2014 to present
    •  Russia: 2014 to present
    •  Saudi Arabia: 2006 to present
    •  Sudan: 2014 to present
    •  Syria: 2006 to present
    •  Tunisia: 2006-2010
    •  Turkmenistan: 2006 to present
    •  United Arab Emirates: 2014 to present
    •  United Kingdom: 2014 to present
    •  United States: 2014 to present
    •  Uzbekistan: 2006 to present
    •  Vietnam: 2006 to present

    Countries Under Surveillance:

    •  Australia: 2009 to present
    •  Belarus: 2009-2011
    •  Bahrain: 2008-2009 and 2011
    •  Egypt: 2011 to present
    •  Eritrea: 2008-2009, 2011 to present
    •  France: 2011 to present
    •  India: 2008-2013
    •  Jordan: 2008
    •  Kazakhstan: 2008 to present
    •  Libya: 2008 and 2011
    •  Malaysia: 2008-2009, 2011 to present
    •  Russia: 2010-2013
    •  South Korea: 2009 to present
    •  Sri Lanka: 2008-2009, 2011 to present
    •  Thailand: 2008 to present
    •  Tajikistan: 2008
    •  Tunisia: 2011 to present
    •  Turkey: 2010 to present
    •  United Arab Emirates: 2008 to 2013
    •  Venezuela: 2011
    •  Yemen: 2008-2009

    When the "Enemies of the Internet" list was introduced in 2006, it listed 13 countries. From 2006 to 2012 the number of countries listed fell to 10 and then rose to 12. The list was not updated in 2013. In 2014 the list grew to 19 with an increased emphasis on surveillance in addition to censorship.

    When the "Countries under surveillance" list was introduced in 2008, it listed 10 countries. Between 2008 and 2012 the number of countries listed grew to 16 and then fell to 14. The list was not updated in 2013 or 2014.

    Special report on Internet Surveillance

    On 12 March 2013 Reporters Without Borders published a "Special report on Internet Surveillance". The report includes two new lists:

    The five "State Enemies of the Internet" named in March 2013 are: Bahrain, China, Iran, Syria, and Vietnam.

    The five "Corporate Enemies of the Internet" named in March 2013 are: Amesys (France), Blue Coat Systems (U.S.), Gamma (UK and Germany), Hacking Team (Italy), and Trovicor (Germany).

    Photography books

    Three times a year starting in 1992 RWB publishes a photography book in its series "100 Photos for Press Freedom" to both raise awareness and raise funds to support RWB''s operations. In 2010 roughly 45% of RWB''s income came from sales of these and other related items (t-shirts, cards, ...). The books are distributed for free by the Nouvelles Messageries de la Presse Parisienne, or NMPP). The books are sold by the French leisure chains and supermarkets Fnac, Carrefour, Casino, Monoprix and Cora, the websites alapage.com, fnac.com, and amazon.fr, as well as A2Presse and over 300 bookshops throughout France.

    In 2013 100 Photos for Press Freedom was, for the first time, published as a digital addition available through the Apple iTunes Store.

    Annual events

    Reporters Without Borders holds several events through the year to promote press and Internet freedom.

    World Press Freedom Index (January)

    Released each January the annually published World Press Freedom Index measures the degree of freedom enjoyed by the media in over 170 countries.

    World Day Against Cyber Censorship (12 March)

    Reporters Without Borders launched the first International Online Free Expression Day on 12 March 2008. Now named World Day Against Cyber Censorship, this annual event rallies support for an unrestricted Internet, accessible to all. On 12 March RWB awards its Netizen Prize and issues its report on freedom of information in cyberspace and an “Enemies of the Internet” list which identifies those countries that are censoring the Web and harassing internet users.

    Netizen PrizeRWB 2011 Netizan Prize

    On World Day Against Cyber Censorship Reporters Without Borders awards an annual Netizen Prize that recognizes an Internet user, blogger, cyber-dissident, or group who has made a notable contribution to the defense of online freedom of expression. Starting in 2010 the prize has been awarded to:

    World Press Freedom Day (3 May)

    Starting in 1992, Reporters Without Borders publishes its “Predators of Press Freedom” list of politicians, government officials, religious leaders, militias and criminal organisations who openly target journalists.

    Reporters Without Borders Prize (December)

    The Reporters Without Borders Prize, in which Le Monde became a partner in 2011, was created in 1992 and is given annually to a journalist (and since 2003 a news media and a cyber-dissident as well) that made, in RWB''s words, “a significant contribution to the defence and promotion of press freedom.” Prize recipients:

    • 1992: Zlatko Dizdarevic (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
    • 1993: Wang Juntao (China)
    • 1994: André Sibomana (Rwanda)
    • 1995: Christina Anyanwu (Nigeria)
    • 1996: Isik Yurtçu (Turkey)
    • 1997: Raúl Rivero (Cuba)
    • 1998: Nizar Nayyouf (Syria)
    • 1999: San San Nweh (Burma)
    • 2000: Carmen Gurruchaga (Spain)
    • 2001: Reza Alijani (Iran)
    • 2002: Grigory Pasko (Russia)
    • 2003: Ali Lmrabet (Morocco)
      • Media: The Daily News (Zimbabwe)
      • Press freedom defender: Michèle Montas (Haiti)
    • 2004: Hafnaoui Ghoul (Algeria)
      • Media: Zeta (Mexico)
      • Press freedom defender: Liu Xiaobo (China)
    • 2005: Zhao Yan (China)
      • Media: Tolo TV (Afghanistan)
      • Press freedom defender: National Union of Somali Journalists (Somalia)
    • 2006: Win Tin (Burma)
      • Media: Novaya Gazeta (Russia)
      • Press freedom defender: Journalist in Danger (DR of Congo)
    • 2007: Seyoum Tsehaye (Eritrea)
      • Media: Democratic Voice of Burma (Burma)
      • Special China Prize: Hu Jia, Zeng Jinyan (China)
    • 2008: Ricardo Gonzales Alfonso (Cuba)
      • Media: Radio Free NK (North Korea)
    • 2009: Amira Hass (Israel)
      • Media: Dosh (Russia - Chechnya)
    • 2010: Abdolreza Tajik (Iran)
      • Media: Radio Shabelle (Somalia)
    • 2011: Ali Ferzat (Syria)
      • Media: Weekly Eleven News (Burma)
    • 2012: Mazen Darwish, the head of the Syrian Centre for Media and Freedom of Expression (SCM), and to the Afghan daily newspaper 8Sobh (8 a.m.)
    • 2013: Muhammad Bekjanov, imprisoned Uzbek journalist, and the Sri Lankan Tamil-language daily Uthayan.
    Cyber-dissident prize

    Reporters Without Borders awards a cyber-dissident prize under various names including: Cyber-Freedom Prize and Cyber-dissident. Winners include:

    Campaigns

    RWB conducts advertising campaigns, jointly with communications professionals, to inform the public and to create bad publicity for governments that violate freedom of information. The campaigns are circulated to the media, international organisations, government agencies, and educational institutions using the Internet as well as traditional media channels.

    Examples include:

    RWB handcuffs as Olympic rings protesting 2008 Olympics in China See also: Concerns and controversies over the 2008 Summer Olympics Protests

    RWB organises symbolic actions in front of the embassies of countries that restrict freedom of information and at various summits and key international events. Photos and videos from these “blitz” interventions are distributed by the international media which helps raise public awareness and identify the enemies of press freedom.

    Examples include:

    The sign reads: Depuis 500 Jours, Hervé et Stéphane sont otages en Afghanistan (For 500 days, Hervé and Stéphane are hostages in Afghanistan) Funding

    In 2010 and 2012 the RWB annual budget was 4.3 million euros:

    2010 budget: 4.3 million euros
    Sources of income:
    45.4% Publications and related products
    17.8% Corporate donors and foundations
    16.9% Government and other public funds
      4.7% Private donations and bequests
      3.4% Other income
      3.9% membership dues, foreign exchange, interest, ...
      0.8% Auction sales
      7.0% Roland Berger Award from Human Dignity
    Spending:
    82.9% Programs in France (61.1%) and abroad (21.8%)
    10.3% Operating costs
      5.1% Fundraising
      1.7% Depreciation and amortization
    2012 budget: 4.3 million euros
    Sources of income:
    35.8% Publications and related products
    13.9% Corporate donors and foundations
    19.9% Government and other public funds
    13.2% Private donations and bequests
      3.8% Other income
    13.5% Deficiency for the financial year
     
     
    Spending:
    78.3% Programs in France and abroad
      7.7% Operating costs
    12.6% Fundraising
      1.5% Depreciation and amortization

    Over the years RWB''s private funding has come from groups and organizations such as Sanofi-Aventis, François Pinault, the Fondation de France, the Open Society Institute of George Soros, the Sigrid Rausing Trust, Benetton, and the Center for a Free Cuba.

    In addition various private groups and organizations have supported RWB through in-kind donations of their services. The photography books are one example as is the work of Saatchi & Saatchi which created various communication campaigns for free (for instance, concerning censorship in Algeria).

    Public funding has come from organisations such as the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights of the European Commission, the French Development Agency, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, UNESCO, the Organisation internationale de la francophonie, the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, a quasi-government organization funded by the ROC Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the National Endowment for Democracy, a branch of the U.S. State Department.

    Daniel Junqua, the vice-president of the French section of RWB (and also vice-president of the NGO Les Amis du Monde diplomatique), stated that funding from the National Endowment for Democracy does not compromise RWB''s impartiality.

    Criticisms of RWB Otto Reich

    Lucie Morillon, RWB''s then-Washington representative, confirmed in an interview on 29 April 2005 that the organization had a contract with US State Department''s Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere, Otto Reich, who signed it in his capacity as a trustee for the Center for a Free Cuba, to inform Europeans about the repression of journalists in Cuba. CounterPunch, a critic of RWB, cited Reich''s involvement with the group as a source of controversy: when Reich headed the Reagan administration''s Office of Public Diplomacy in the 1980s, the body partook in what its officials termed "White Propaganda" – covert dissemination of information to influence domestic opinion regarding US backing for military campaigns against Left-wing governments in Latin America.

    Cuba

    RWB has been highly critical of press freedom in Cuba, describing the Cuban government as "totalitarian", and engages in direct campaigning against it. RWB''s campaign includes declarations on radio and television, full-page ads in Parisian dailies, posters, leafletting at airports, and an April 2003 occupation of the Cuban tourism office in Paris. A Paris court (tribunal de grande instance) ordered RWB to pay 6,000 Euros to the daughter and heir of Alberto Korda for non-compliance with a court order of 9 July 2003 banning it from using Korda''s famous (and copyrighted) photograph of Ernesto "Che" Guevara in a beret, taken at the funeral of La Coubre victims. RWB said it was "relieved" it was not given a harsher sentence. The face had been superimposed by RWB with that of a May 1968 CRS anti-riot police agent, and the postcard handed out at Orly Airport in Paris to tourists boarding on flights for Cuba. On 24 April 2003, RWB organized a demonstration outside the Cuban embassy in Paris

    RWB in turn has been described as an "ultra-reactionary" organization by the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party, Granma. Tensions between Cuban authorities and RWB are high, particularly after the imprisonment in 2003 of 75 dissidents (27 journalists) by the Cuban Government, including Raúl Rivero and Óscar Elías Biscet. An article by John Cherian in the Indian magazine Frontline alleged that RWB "is reputed to have strong links with Western intelligence agencies" and "Cuba has accused Robert Meynard the head of the group, of having CIA links".

    RWB has denied that its campaigning on Cuba are related to payments it has received from anti-Castro organisations. In 2004, it received $50,000 from the Miami based exile group, the Center for a Free Cuba, which was personally signed by the US State Department''s Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere, Otto Reich. RWB has also received extensive funding from other institutions long critical of Fidel Castro''s government, including the International Republican Institute.

    Journalist Salim Lamrani has accused Reporters Without Borders with making unsupported and contradictory statements regarding Internet connectivity in Cuba.

    Haiti

    In 2004, Reporters Without Borders released an annual report on Haiti, saying that a "climate of terror" existed in which attacks and threats persisted against those journalists who were critical of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

    An August 2006 article in CounterPunch accused RWB of ignoring similar attacks on journalists under the Latortue government in 2005 and 2006, including that of Pacifica Radio reporter Kevin Pina. Pina himself said:

    It was clear early on that RWB and Robert Menard were not acting as objective guardians of freedom of the press in Haiti but rather as central actors in what can only be described as a disinformation campaign against Aristide''s government ... They provide false information and skewed reports to build internal opposition to governments seen as uncontrollable and unpalatable to Washington while softening the ground for their eventual removal by providing justification under the pretext of attacks on the freedom of the press.

    Venezuela

    Le Monde diplomatique has criticized RWB''s attitude towards Hugo Chávez''s government in Venezuela, in particular during the 2002 coup attempt. In a right of reply, Robert Ménard declared that RWB had also condemned the Venezuela media''s support of the coup attempt. RWB has also been criticized for supporting Globovision''s version of events about its false reporting in relation to a 2009 earthquake, claiming Globovision was "being hounded by the government and the administration".

    Overemphasis on "third-world dictatorships", bias in favor of Europe and the U.S.

    In 2007 John Rosenthal argued that RWB showed a bias in favor of European countries. In the 2009 article about RWB and Venezuela cited above, Salim Lamrani stated that "RSF is not an organization that defends freedom of the press, but is an obscure entity with a political agenda precisely commissioned to discredit through all possible means the progressive governments in the world that find themselves on the United States'' blacklist."

    According to Observatoire de l''Action Humanitaire (Centre for Humanitarian Action), ever since Robert Ménard was replaced by Jean-François Julliard in September 2008, RWB has been concerned with violations of press freedom not only in "third-world dictatorships" but also in developed countries like France. Through widening its geographical scope, RWB aims at countering accusations of overly focusing on left-wing regimes unfriendly to the US. For example, RWB condemned the 35 year sentence received by American soldier Bradley Manning, calling it "disproportionate" and arguing that it reveals how "vulnerable" whistleblowers are.

    UNESCO support for International Online Free Expression Day

    UNESCO, who initially had granted patronage to the first International Online Free Expression Day to be held on 12 March 2008, withdrew its patronage on the day of the event giving as reasons that RWB "published material concerning a number of UNESCO''s Member States, which UNESCO had not been informed of and could not endorse" and that "UNESCO''s logo was placed in such a way as to indicate the Organization''s support of the information presented." RWB responded in a press release that “UNESCO has withdrawn its support to the promotion of this campaign because several of the nations which are part of the list of Internet Enemies published by the nongovernmental organization have directly put pressure to achieve it.”

    Tags:1968, AFP, Afghan, Afghanistan, Africa, Ahmadinejad, Algeria, Ali Khamenei, American, Arab, Arabia, Arabic, Arc de Triomphe, Armed, Asia, Asia-Pacific, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Baloch, Bangladesh, Beijing, Belarus, Berlin, Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bradley Manning, Brussels, Burma, CIA, Cambridge, Censorship, Champs-Élysées, Charlemagne, China, Chinese, Colombia, Communication, Communist, Congo, Cuba, Director General, Egypt, Egyptian, Emirates, England, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Europe, European Parliament, European Union, Farsi, Fidel Castro, France, French, Geneva, Germany, Greece, Guinea, Haiti, Hamas, Herzegovina, Honduras, Hugo Chávez, Human Rights, Ibn, India, International Republican Institute, Internet, Iran, Iranian, Iraq, Islam, Islamic, Islamic Republic, Israel, Italian, Italy, Jordan, Kahlil Gibran, Kazakhstan, Khamenei, Kim Jong-un, Korea, Laos, Latin America, Libya, Los, Madrid, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Malaysia, Maldives, Media, Mexico, Miami, Middle East, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Morocco, Muslim, Muslim Brotherhood, NGO, Nations, Nigeria, Nigerian, Nobel, North Korea, North Korean, OSCE, Observatory, Olympic, Olympic Games, Olympics, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Orly, Pacific, Pakistan, Pakistani, Palestine, Palestinian, Palestinian Authority, Paris, Parliament, Paul Kagame, Philippines, President, Protests, Radio, Reich, Reporters Without Borders, Robert Mugabe, Romania, Rome, Russia, Russian, Russian Federation, Saudi, Saudi Arabia, Secretary General, Shirin Ebadi, Somalia, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, State Department, Stockholm, Sudan, Supreme Leader, Swaziland, Syria, Syrian, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Taliban, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, UK, UNESCO, US, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, Universal, Uzbek, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vienna, Vietnam, Vladimir Putin, Warsaw, Washington, Website, Wikipedia, Xi Jinping, Yemen, Zimbabwe


    Related History Articles:

    Failed to connect to MySQL 1: Access denied for user 'foumanu'@'localhost' (using password: YES)