• Login/Register
  • Section: Name /Monday 13th October 2014

    Alphabetic Index : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    Search β):

    * RAND *

    رَند


    Qajar_Royal_Lady_Irandokht_Daughter_Ahmad_Shah.jpg
    (Wikipedia) - RAND Corporation   (Redirected from RAND) Not to be confused with American Research and Development Corporation. "RAND" redirects here. For other uses, see Rand (disambiguation).
    The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (June 2014)
    This article relies on references to primary sources. Please add references to secondary or tertiary sources. (August 2010)
    RAND Corporation Founded Founder Type Focus Location Origins Area served Key people Revenue Employees Slogan Website
    1948
    Henry H. "Hap" Arnold Donald Wills Douglas, Sr.
    Global policy think tank
    Policy Analysis
    United States Army Air Forces, Project RAND
    Predominantly United States of America
    Michael D. Rich
    $252.87 million (FY11)
    1,700
    "To help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis."
    www.rand.org

    RAND Corporation (Research ANd Development) is a nonprofit global policy think tank formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces by Douglas Aircraft Company. It is financed by the U.S. government and private endowment, corporations including the health care industry, universities and private individuals. The organization has expanded to work with other governments, private foundations, international organizations, and commercial organizations on a host of non-defense issues. RAND aims for interdisciplinary and quantitative problem solving via translating theoretical concepts from formal economics and the physical sciences into novel applications in other areas, that is, via applied science and operations research. Michael D. Rich is president and chief executive officer of the RAND Corporation.

    RAND has approximately 1,700 employees. Its American locations include: Santa Monica, California (headquarters); Arlington, Virginia; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Boston, Massachusetts. The RAND Gulf States Policy Institute has offices in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Jackson, Mississippi. RAND Europe is located in Cambridge, United Kingdom, and Brussels, Belgium. RAND Australia is located in Canberra, Australia.

    RAND is home to the Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School, one of the eight original graduate programs in public policy and the first to offer a Ph.D. The program aims to have practical value in that students work with RAND analysts on real-world problems. The campus is at RAND''s Santa Monica research facility. The Pardee RAND School is the world''s largest Ph.D.-granting program in policy analysis. Upon completion of their education, students receive an M.Phil. in public policy analysis – equivalent to a master''s degree in public policy. Unlike many other universities, all Pardee RAND Graduate School students receive fellowships to cover their education costs. This allows them to dedicate their time to engage in research projects and provides them on-the-job training. RAND also offers a number of internship and fellowship programs allowing students and outsiders to assist in conducting research for RAND projects. Most of these projects are short-term and are worked on independently with the mentoring of a RAND staff member.

    RAND publishes the RAND Journal of Economics, a peer-reviewed journal of economics.

    Thirty-two recipients of the Nobel Prize, primarily in the fields of economics and physics, have been involved or associated with RAND at some point in their career.

    Contents

    Project RAND

    General Henry H. Arnold, commander of the United States Army Air Forces, established Project RAND with the objective of looking into long-range planning of future weapons. In March 1946 Douglas Aircraft Company was granted the contract to research on intercontinental warfare by adopting operations research. In May 1946 the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship was released. In May 1948, Project RAND separated from Douglas and became an independent non-profit organization as Douglas Aircraft feared it would create conflicts of interest jeopardizing future hardware contracts. Initial capital for the split was provided by the Ford Foundation.

    History

    Since the 1950s, RAND research has helped inform United States policy decisions on a wide variety of issues, including the space race, the U.S.-Soviet nuclear arms confrontation, the creation of the Great Society social welfare programs, the digital revolution, and national health care. Its most visible contribution may be the doctrine of nuclear deterrence by mutually assured destruction (MAD), developed under the guidance of then-Defense Secretary Robert McNamara and based upon their work with game theory. Chief strategist Herman Kahn also posited the idea of a "winnable" nuclear exchange in his 1960 book On Thermonuclear War. This led to Kahn being one of the models for the titular character of the film Dr. Strangelove.

    Mission statement

    RAND was incorporated as a non-profit organization to "further promote scientific, educational, and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare and security of the United States of America". Its self-declared mission is "to help improve policy and decision making through research and analysis", using its "core values of quality and objectivity".

    Achievements and expertise
    This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2008)
    RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    The achievements of RAND stem from its development of systems analysis. Important contributions are claimed in space systems and the United States'' space program, in computing and in artificial intelligence. RAND researchers developed many of the principles that were used to build the Internet. RAND also contributed to the development and use of wargaming.

    Current areas of expertise include: child policy, civil and criminal justice, education, health, international policy, labor markets, national security, infrastructure, energy, environment, corporate governance, economic development, intelligence policy, long-range planning, crisis management and disaster preparation, population and regional studies, science and technology, social welfare, terrorism, arts policy, and transportation.

    RAND designed and conducted one of the largest and most important studies of health insurance between 1974 and 1982. The RAND Health Insurance Experiment, funded by the then-U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, established an insurance corporation to compare demand for health services with their cost to the patient.

    According to the 2005 annual report, "about one-half of RAND''s research involves national security issues". Many of the events in which RAND plays a part are based on assumptions which are hard to verify because of the lack of detail on RAND''s highly classified work for defense and intelligence agencies. The RAND Corporation posts all of its unclassified reports in full on its website.

    Notable participantsJohn von Neumann, consultant to the RAND Corporation.

    Over the last 60 years, more than 30 Nobel Prize winners have been involved or associated with the RAND Corporation at some point in their careers.

    Tags:American, Arlington, Australia, Belgium, Boston, Brussels, California, Cambridge, Canberra, Cheney, Condoleezza Rice, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, Europe, Forbes, Ford, French, Google, Health Insurance, Henry Kissinger, Internet, Kissinger, Lloyd, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Nations, Newton, Nobel, Nobel Peace Prize, Nobel Prize, Office of Special Plans, Pennsylvania, Pentagon, Ph.D, President, RAND, RAND Corporation, Ray, Rumsfeld, Santa Monica, Soviet, The Wall Street Journal, Thomas, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, Vietnam, Virginia, Wall Street, Wall Street Journal, Website, Wikipedia


    See also items containing : RAND

    Failed to connect to MySQL 1: Access denied for user 'foumanu'@'localhost' (using password: YES)