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* Proto-Indo-Iranian language *



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(Wikipedia) - Proto-Indo-Iranian language Indo-European topics
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Proto-Indo-Iranian is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Indo-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the late 3rd millennium BC, and are often connected with the early Andronovo archaeological horizon.

Proto-Indo-Iranian was a Satem language, likely removed less than a millennium from the late Proto-Indo-European language, and in turn removed less than a millennium from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda. It is the ancestor of the Indo-Aryan languages, the Iranian languages, the Dardic languages and the Nuristani languages.

Contents

Descriptive phonology Proto-Indo-Iranian consonant segments Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Laryngeal dental/

alveolar

post-

alveolar

first second Plosive

voiceless

voiced aspirated Fricative

voiceless

voiced Nasal Liquid Semivowel
*p *t *k  
*b *d *g  
*bʰ *dʰ *ĵʰ *ǰʰ *gʰ  
*s *H
(*z) (*ž)  
*m *n  
*l *r *r̥  
*y *w  
PII vowel segments High Low
*i *ī         *u *ū
    *a *ā    

In addition to the vowels, *H, and *r̥ could function as the syllabic core.

Two palatal series

Proto-Indo-Iranian is hypothesized to contain two series of stops or affricates in the palatal to postalveolar region. The following table shows the most common reflexes and origins of the two series (Proto-Iranian is the hypothetical ancestor to the Iranian languages, including Avestan and Old Persian):

PIE PII Sanskrit Proto-Iranian Avestan Old Persian Nuristani
*k̂ ś () *ts s θ ċ () / š
j () *dz z d j () / z
*ĝʰ *ĵʰ h ()
*k/kʷ c č č č
*g/gʷ j () ǰ ǰ ǰ / ž
*gʰ/gʷʰ *ǰʰ h ()
Laryngeal

Proto-Indo-European is usually hypothesized to have three to four laryngeal consonants, each of which could occur in either syllabic or non-syllabic position. In Proto-Indo-Iranian, the laryngeals merged as one phoneme /*H/. Beekes suggests that some instances of this /*H/ survived into Avestan as unwritten glottal stops.

Accent

Like Proto-Indo-European and Vedic Sanskrit (and also Avestan, though it was not written down), Proto-Indo-Iranian had a pitch accent, indicated by an acute accent over the accented vowel.

Historical phonology

The most distinctive phonological change separating Proto-Indo-Iranian from Proto-Indo-European is the collapse of the ablauting vowels *e, *o, *a into a single vowel, Proto-Indo-Iranian *a (but see Brugmann''s law). Grassmann''s law, Bartholomae''s law, and the Ruki sound law were also complete in Proto-Indo-Iranian.

A fuller list of some of the hypothesized sound changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranian follows:

PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*k̂m̥tóm *ĉatám śatám satəm centum "hundred"
*ĝónu *ĵā́nu jā́nu zānu genu "knee"
*ĝʰéi-mn̥ *ĵʰimá- himá- zima- hiems "winter" / "snow"
*kʷó- *ká- ká- quis "who?, what?"
*gʷou- *gau- go gau- bos, bovis "cow"
*gʷʰormó- *gʰarmá- gharmá- garəma- formus "warmth, heat"
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*wĺ̥kʷo- *wŕ̥ka- *vŕ̥ka- vəhrka- lupus "wolf"
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*k̂m̥tóm *ĉatám śatám satəm centum "hundred"
*mn̥tó- *matá matá- mens, mentis "thinking"
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
*ubʰto- *ubdʰa- ubdaēna "woven" / "made of woven material"
*urdʰto- *urdzdʰa- vr̥ddʰá- vrzda- "complete/mature"
*augʰ-tá- *augdʰá- *óhate *augda "he said"
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
*wers- *warš- varṣman- "summit"
*pr̥sto- *pr̥šta- pr̥ṣṭhá- paršta "back" / "backbone"
*ǵeus- *ĵauš- joṣati zaošō "taste"
*kʷsep- *kšap- (< *ksep) kṣāp xšap "darkness"
*wis- *wiš- viṣa- viša- "poison"
*nisdo- *nižda- nīḍa- "nest"
PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan
*h₂ok̂tṓ *oĉtṓ *aštā́ aṣṭaú ašta "eight"
*h₃mr̥ĝt- *mr̥ĵd- *mr̥žd- mr̥ḍīká- mərəžḍīka "wiped away" / "pardon"
*uĝʰtó- *uĵʰtó- *uždʰá- ūḍhá- "carried"
PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*h₂ék̂s- *áĉs- *ášš- ákṣa- aši- axis "shoulder" / "axle"
PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan
*kʷe *ke *ča ca ča "and"
*gʷíh₃weti *gíh₃weti *ǰī́wati jī́vati jvaiti "lives"
*gʷʰénti *gʰénti *ǰʰánti hánti jainti "slays"
PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
*deh₃tór-m *deh₃tṓr-m *dātā́ram dātā́ram dātāram dator "giver" (acc. sg.)
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
*kʷe *ča (< *če) ca ča "and"
*gʷʰormó- *gʰarmá- gharmá- garəma- "heat"
*bʰréh₂tēr *bʰrā́tār bhrā́tā brātā "brother"
*wōkʷs *wākš vāk vāxš "voice"
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
*ph₂trei *pitrai pitre piθrai "father" (dative singular)
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
*-medʰh₂ *-madʰi -mahi -madi (1st person plural middle ending)
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
*ph₂tér *pHtā́ pitā́ ptā "father" (nominative singular)
PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
*bʰeh₂g- *bʰag- ( < *bʰaHg- ) bʰag- baxša "distribute"

Subsequent sound changes

Among the sound changes from Proto-Indo-Iranian to Indo-Aryan is the loss of the voiced sibilant *z, among those to Iranian is the de-aspiration of the PIE voiced aspirates.

Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Phonological Correspondences PIE OInd/VS Av PIE OInd/VS Av
*p > p p *ph̥atēr "father" pitā́ "father" pitar- "father"
*b > b b *bel- "strong" bálam "strength" -
*bh > bh b *bhréhatēr "brother" bhrā́tār- "brother" brātar- "brother
*t > t t *tuhxóm "thou" tuvám "thou" tvəm "thou"
*d > d d *doru "wood" dā́ru "wood" dāru- "wood"
*dh > dh d *dhohxneha- "grain" dhānā́- "grain" dāna- "grain"
*k̂ > ś s *dék̂m̥ "ten" dáśa "ten" dasa "ten"
> j z *ĝónu "knee" jā́nu "knee" zānu- "knee"
*ĝh > h z *ĝhimós "cold" himá- "cold, frost" zəmaka- "winterstorm"
*k > k ~ c x ~ č *kruharós "bloody" krūrá- "bloody" xrūra- "bloody"
*téket "may he run" - tačat̰ "may he run"
*g > g ~ j g ~ ǰ *haéuges- "strength" ójas- "strength" aoǰah "strength"
*haugrós "strong" ugrá- "strong" ugra- "strong"
*gh > gh ~ h g ~ ǰ *dl̥hxghós "long" dīrghá- "long" darəga- "long"
*dlehxghistos "longest" - draǰišta- "longest"
*kw > k ~ c k ~ č *kwós "who" káḥ "who" kō "who"
*kwe "and" ca "and" ́ča "and"
*gw > g ~ j g ~ ǰ *gwou- "cow" gav- "cow" gau- "cow"
*gwih3uós "alive" jīvá- "alive" OPer: ǰīva

- "living"

*gwh > gh ~ h g ~ ǰ *gwhnénti "strike" (pl.) ghnánti "strike" (pl.) -
*gwhénti "strikes" hánti "strikes" ǰainti "strikes"
*s > s s ~ h *septm̥ "seven" saptá "seven" hapta "seven"
*asti "is" asti "is" asti "is"
*i̥ > y y *i̥ugóm "yoke" yuga''m "yoke" yuga- "yoke"
*u̥ > v v *u̥éĝheti "drives, rides" váhati "drives" vazaiti "travels"
*m > m m *méhatēr "mother" mātár- "mother" mātar- "mother"
*n > n n *nos "us" nas "us" nō "us"
*l > l ~ r r *kweleti "moves" carati "moves" caraiti "moves"
*r > r r *bhrehatēr "brother" bhrā́tār- "brother" brātar- "brother
*n̥ > a a *n̥- "un-" a- "un-" a- "un-"
*m̥ > a a *k̂m̥tóm "hundred" s''atám "hundred" satəm "hundred"
*l̥ > ərər *u̥l̥kwos "wolf" vĺ̥ka- "wolf" vəhrka- "wolf"
*r̥ > ərər *k̂r̥d- "heart" hŕ̥d- "heart" zərəd- "heart"
*i > i i *linékwti "leaves" riṇákti "leaves" irinaxti "releases"
*e > a a *dék̂m̥ "ten" dáśa "ten" dasa "ten"
> ā ā *hanḗr "man" nā "man" nā "man"
*a > a a *haéĝeti "drives" ájati "drives" azaiti "drives"
> ā ā *méhatēr "mother" mātā́ "mother" mātar- "mother"
*o > a ~ ā a ~ ā *ĝómbhos "tooth, peg" jā́mbha- "tooth, tusk" -
*ĝónu "knee" jānu "knee" zānu- "knee"
> ā ā *dhohxneha- "grain" dhānā́- "grain" dāna- "grain"
*u > u u *iugóm "yoke" yugám "yoke" yuga- "yoke"
> ū ū *mū́s "mouse" mū́ṣ- "mouse" NPer mūs "mouse"
*h1 > *h1ésti "is" ásti "is" asti "is"
*h2 > *h2r̥tk̂os "bear" r̥''kṣa- "bear" arəša- "bear"
*h3 > *h3ókws(i) "eye" ákṣi "eye" aši "eye"
*h4 > *h4órĝhis "testicle" - ərəzi- "testicle"
Proto-Indo-Iranian Old Iranian (OP, Av) Old Indic/Vedic Sanskrit
*aĉwa- ("horse") Av, OP aspa aśva
*bʰag- OP baj- (bāji; "tribute") bhag- (bhaga)
*bʰrātr- ("brother") OP brātar bhrātṛ
*bʰūmī ("earth", "land") OP būmi bhūmī
*martya ("mortal, "man") OP martya martya
*māsa ("moon") OP māha māsa
*wāsara ("early") OP vāhara ("spring") vāsara ("morning")
*ṛta ("truth") Av aša, OP arta ṛta
*draugʰ- ("falsehood") Av druj, OP draug- druh-
*sauma "pressed (juice)" Av haoma soma

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