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    * Necmettin Erbakan *

    نجم الدین ارباکان

    (Wikipedia) - Necmettin Erbakan Prof. Dr. Necmettin Erbakan Prime Minister of TurkeyPresident Deputy Preceded by Succeeded by Personal details Born Died Political party Spouse(s) Children Alma mater Religion Signature
    In office June 28, 1996 – June 30, 1997
    Süleyman Demirel
    Tansu Çiller
    Mesut Yılmaz
    Mesut Yılmaz
    (1926-10-29)29 October 1926 Sinop, Turkey
    27 February 2011(2011-02-27) (aged 84) Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey
    National Order Party (1970–71) National Salvation Party (1972–1981) Welfare Party (1987–1998) Virtue Party (1998–2001) Felicity Party (2003–2011)
    Nermin Erbakan (m. 1967–2005, her death)
    Zeynep, Elif, Fatih
    Istanbul Technical University University of London King Saud University
    Sunni Islam

    Necmettin Erbakan (29 October 1926 – 27 February 2011) was a Turkish politician, engineer, and academic who was the Prime Minister of Turkey from 1996 to 1997. He was pressured by the military to step down as prime minister and was later banned from politics by the Constitutional Court of Turkey for violating the separation of religion and state as mandated by the constitution, a ban that was later upheld by the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR).

    The political ideology and movement founded by Erbakan, Millî Görüş, calls for the strengthening of Islamic values in Turkey and turning away from what Erbakan perceived to be the negative influence of the Western world in favor of closer relations to Muslim countries. Erbakan''s political views led to conflict with the core principle of secularism in Turkey, culminating in his removal from office. With the Millî Görüş ideology, Erbakan was the founder and leader of several prominent Islamic political parties in Turkey from the 1960s to the 2010s, namely the National Order Party (MNP), the National Salvation Party (MSP), the Welfare Party (RP), the Virtue Party (FP), and the Felicity Party (SP).


    Early life and education

    Erbakan was born in Sinop, at the coast of Black Sea in northern Turkey. His father was Mehmet Sabri, a judge from the prestigious Kozanoğlu clan (Oghuz Turks, Afshar tribe) of Cilicia and his mother Kamer was a native of Sinop and the second wife of Mehmet Sabri.

    After the high school education in Istanbul High School, he graduated from the Mechanical Engineering Faculty at the Istanbul Technical University in 1948, and received a PhD degree electrical engineering from the University of London. He later received an MA and second PhD in Islamic Studies from King Saud University. After returning to Turkey, Erbakan became lecturer at the İTÜ and was appointed professor in 1965 at the same university. After working some time in leading position in the industry, he switched over to politics, and was elected deputy of Konya in 1969.

    Political activities

    Erbakan''s ideology is set forth in a manifesto, entitled Millî Görüş (National View), which he published in 1969. The organisation of the same name, which he founded and of which he was the leader, upholds nowadays that the word "national" is to be understood in the sense of monotheistic ecumenism.

    One of the leading names in Turkish politics for decades, Erbakan was the leader of a series of Islamic political parties that he founded or inspired. These parties rose to prominence only to be banned by Turkey''s secular authorities. In the 1970s, Erbakan was chairman of the National Salvation Party which, at its peak, served in coalition government with the Republican People''s Party of Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit during the Cyprus crisis of 1974. So "Mujahideen" (Turkish: "Mücahid") was nicknamed from Turkish people at this after successful operation.

    In the wake of the 1980 military coup, Erbakan and his party were banned from politics. He reemerged following a referendum to lift the ban in 1987 and became the leader of Refah Partisi (Welfare Party). His party benefited in the 1990s from the acrimony between the leaders of Turkey''s two most prominent conservative parties, Mesut Yılmaz and Tansu Çiller. He led his party to a surprise success in the general elections of 1995.


    He became Prime Minister in 1996 in coalition with Çiller''s Doğru Yol Partisi (Correct Path Party). As prime minister, he attempted to further Turkey''s relations with the Arab nations. In addition to trying to follow an economic welfare program, which was supposedly intended to increase welfare among Turkish citizens, the government tried to implement multi-dimensional political approach to relations with the neighboring countries.

    Erbakan''s image was damaged by his famous speech making fun of the nightly demonstrations against the Susurluk scandal. He was widely blamed at the time for his indifference. The Turkish military gradually increased the urgency and frequency of its public warnings to Erbakan''s government, eventually prompting Erbakan to step down in 1997.

    At the time there was a formal deal between Erbakan and Tansu Çiller, the leaders of the coalition, for a "period based premiership". According to this, Erbakan was to act as the prime minister for a certain period (a fixed amount of time, which was not publicized), then he would step down in favour of Çiller. However, Ciller''s party was the third-largest in the parliament, and when Erbakan stepped down, President Süleyman Demirel asked Mesut Yılmaz, leader of the second-largest party, to form a new government instead.


    Erbakan''s ruling Welfare Party was subsequently banned by the courts, which held that the party had an agenda to promote Islamic fundamentalism in the state, and Erbakan was barred once again from active politics.

    Despite often being under political ban, Erbakan nonetheless acted as a mentor and informal advisor to former Refah members who founded the Virtue Party in 1997, among them the current Prime Minister of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. The Virtue Party was found unconstitutional in 2001 and banned; by that time Erbakan''s ban on political activities had ended, and he founded the Felicity Party, of which he was the leader in 2003–2004 and again from 2010 until his death.

    DeathGrave of Necmettin Erbakan and his family at Merkezefendi Cemetery in Istanbul

    Erbakan died on 27 February 2011 at 11:40 local time of heart failure at Güven Hospital in Çankaya, Ankara.

    His body was transferred to Istanbul, and following the religious funeral service at the Fatih Mosque, the attending crowd accompanied his coffin the about 4 km (2.5 mi) way to the Merkezefendi Cemetery, where he was laid to rest beside his wife Nermin. He did not wish a state funeral, however his funeral was attended by highest state and government officials.

    Views Main article: Millî Görüş

    His foreign policy had two main pillars: close cooperation and unity among Muslim countries, and struggle against "Zionism". He created "D-8" or The Developing Eight, to achieve an economic and political unity among Muslim countries. It has eight members, including Turkey, Iran, Malaysia, Indonesia, Egypt, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nigeria.

    Tags:Afshar, Ankara, Arab, Bangladesh, Cilicia, Cyprus, Egypt, Hospital, Human Rights, Indonesia, Iran, Islam, Islamic, Istanbul, Konya, London, Malaysia, Muslim, Necmettin Erbakan, Nigeria, Pakistan, PhD, Post, President, Prime Minister, Sunni, Turkey, Turkish, Turks, University of London, Wikipedia

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