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    * Nangarhar Province *

    ولایت ننگرهار


    Iranian_Flag_Hand_Love_Heart.jpg
    (Wikipedia) - Nangarhar Province "Nangarhar" redirects here. For other uses, see Nangarhar (disambiguation). Nangarhar ننګرهار Country Capital Government  • Governor Area  • Total Population (2010)  • Total  • Density Time zone ISO 3166 code Main languages
    Province
    Map of Afghanistan with Nangarhar highlighted
    Coordinates (Capital): 34°15′N 70°30′E / 34.25°N 70.50°E / 34.25; 70.50Coordinates: 34°15′N 70°30′E / 34.25°N 70.50°E / 34.25; 70.50
    Afghanistan
    Jalalabad
    Mulawee Attaullah ludin
    7,727 km2 (2,983 sq mi)
    1,383,900
    180/km2 (460/sq mi)
    GMT+4:30
    AF-NAN
    Pashto

    Nangarhar (Pashto: ننګرهار‎ and Persian: ننگرهار‎ ; Nangarhār) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan in the east of the country. Its capital is the city of Jalalabad. The population of the province is 1,383,900, consisting of ethnic Pashtuns, Arabs, Pashais, Tajiks and others. Wahara means place of prayers and worship which is present in the name of a number of cities as a suffix such as Kandahar, Nangarhar, Binhar, etc. it comes from the Buddhist term for Vihara.

    Contents

    History

    Song Yun, a Chinese monk visited Nangarhar in 520 A.D. The people were Buddhists. Song Yun saw in Nangarhar (Na-lka-lo-hu) the temple containing the skull of Buddha in Hadda, and the monastery of Kekalam (probably the Mehterlam of Laghman) where 13 pieces of the cloak of Buddha and his 18 feet long mast were preserved. In the city of Naki, a tooth and hair of Buddha were preserved and in the Kupala cave Buddha’s shadow reflected close to which he saw a stone tablet which was at that time considered to be related to Buddha (probably the stone tablet of Ashoka in Darunta). The region was slowly Islamised by preachings and conquests.

    Governors Main article: List of governors of Nangarhar Geopolitical and military situationRoad from Jalalabad to the Afghan capital of Kabul.Joint ISAF-ANA Commando patrol in the Achin District, in April 2009

    Nangarhar shares a border with neighboring Khyber Pakhtunkhwa problematic area between Pakistan and Afghanistan, and the two regions share very close ties, with significant travel and commerce in both directions.

    The United States armed forces and the multi-national coalition forces, ISAF, are active in the area. The Shinwar district of Nangarhar was the site of the 2007 Shinwar shootings and the Dih Bala district was the site of the Deh Bala wedding party bombing.

    Healthcare

    The percentage of households with clean drinking water fell from 43% in 2005 to 8% in 2011. The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 22% in 2005 to 60% in 2011.

    Education

    The overall literacy rate (6+ years of age) increased from 29% in 2005 to 31% in 2011. The overall net enrolment rate (6–13 years of age) increased from 39% in 2005 to 51% in 2011.

    Incidents

    This is the province where Osama bin Laden had strong position and was leading fighting against US and other coalition, in the 2001 Tora Bora campaign. He ultimately escaped to Abottabad, Pakistan, where he was killed by members of the United States Navy SEALs in 2011.

    Shinwar shooting Main article: 2007 Shinwar shooting

    On 2 February 2007, F platoon of the US Marine Corps Special Operations Company killed as many as 19 civilians, and injured as many as 50, while fleeing the site of a bombing. Haji Ihsanullah, a member of Hezb-e Islami Khalis, initially drove a minivan laden with explosives into one of the five vehicles making up a US convoy, which included three, or six, humvees, wounding one Marine. Sources differ on whether or not hidden gunmen then also opened fire on the convoy. US forces then fled the scene of the ambush, opening fire on some vehicles for 6–16 miles while driving along the Afghan street. According to several witnesses and the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission, US Marines responded to the attack with excessive force, firing indiscriminately at civilians passing by on the busy highway, killing elderly men, women, and children. Akhtyar Gul, a local reporter who witnessed the shooting, claimed that the Marines sprayed civilians with machine gun fire even though the Marines were not under attack. Associated Press and Afghan journalists claimed that US soldiers confiscated photos and videos of the killings and their aftermath.

    Afghans Response

    The killings were followed by widespread protests across Afghanistan and drew sharp criticism from President Hamid Karzai. The Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission contends that, "In failing to distinguish between civilians and legitimate military targets, the U.S. Marine Corps Special Forces employed indiscriminate force," the report said. "Their actions thus constitute a serious violation of international humanitarian standards.

    Deh Bala Shinwari wedding party bombing Main article: Deh Bala wedding party bombing

    On 6 July 2008, the United States military bombed a wedding in the Dih Bala district of Nangarhar province, killing 47 civilians. On July 6, 2008, a large number of Afghan civilians were walking the bride of a wedding ceremony to the groom''s village in an area called Kamala in Dih Bala district of the eastern province of Nangarhar. When the group stopped for a rest, it was hit in succession by three bombs from United States military aircraft. The first bomb hit a group of children who were ahead of the main procession, killing them instantly. A few minutes later, the aircraft returned and dropped a second bomb in the center of the group, killing a large number of women. The bride and two girls survived the second bomb, but were killed by a third bomb while trying to escape from the area. Hajj Khan, one of four elderly men who were escorting the party, stated that his grandson was killed and that there were body parts everywhere. Relatives from the groom''s village stated it was not possible to identify the remains, and buried the 47 victims in 28 graves. An investigation ordered by President Karzai and led by a nine-man commission of the senate found that 47 civilians including the bride had been killed. Burhanullah Shinwari, a member of the commission, told the BBC that there were 39 women and children among those killed, and that eight of those who died were between the ages of 14 and 18. Another nine people were wounded in the attack. On July 16, 2008, President Hamid Karzai visited the site where the US-led strikes hit the wedding. Rock band The Airborne Toxic Event recorded a track protesting the bombing entitled "Welcome to Your Wedding Day" on their second album All at Once.

    Economy and poppy production

    Once Nangrahar was major center of opium poppy production in Afghanistan, the province had reportedly decreased its production of poppy by up to 95% in 2005, one of the success stories of the Afghan eradication program. However, the eradication program has often left peasant farmers destitute and, in 2006, farmers were reported to have surrendered their children to opium dealers in payment on their debts.

    Opium cultivation

    The illicit poppy cultivation takes place in Khogiani, Ghanikhil, Chaparhar, Sherzad, Toorghar, Shenwari and other remote districts. The farmers cite the lack of water and also poverty as the reasons for poppy cultivation. Poppy was also cultivated in Goshta District, Lalpura which borders Pakistan; but now the people just cultivate wheat and other legal crops.

    DistrictsDistricts of Nangarhar (district names in Dari)

    Nangarhar province is administratively subdivided into 22 districts, these are:

    Districts of Nangarhar Province District Capital Population Area Notes
    Dih Bala 33,294 100% Pashtun,
    Achin 95,468
    Bihsud 118,934 80% Pahtun, 20% Arab
    Chaparhar 57,339 Pashtun
    Dara-I-Nur 98,202 30% pashtun, 70% Pashias
    Bati Kot 31,308 Pashtun
    Dur Baba 13,479 100 % Pashtun
    Goshta 31,130
    Hisarak 28,376 100% Pashtun
    Jalalabad 205,423 Pashtun, Tajik, Arab, Pashias
    Kama 52,527 100% pashtun
    Khogyani 111,479 pashtun
    Kot 52,154 Created in 2005 within Rodat District
    Kuz Kunar 42,823 80% Pashtun, 15% Pashias
    Lal Pur 18,997
    Momand Dara 42,103
    Nazyan 16,328
    Pachir Aw Agam 40,141
    Rodat 63,357 Sub-divided in 2005
    Sherzad 63,232
    Shinwar 64,872
    Surkh Rod 91,548 95% pashtun, 5% Tajik
    Sports

    The province is represented in domestic cricket competitions by the Nangarhar province cricket team. Jalalabad is considered the capital of Afghan cricket with many of the national players coming from the surrounding areas. National team member Hamid Hasan was born in the province and he currently represents Afghanistan in international cricket.

    De Spinghar Bazan is a regional team in the Roshan Afghan Premier League based in Jalalabad. Jalalabad Regional Football Tournament were four local team plays like Malang Jan, Shaheed Qasim, Afghan Refugees and Laghman for to find raw talent in Afghan Premier League.

    Stadiums

    Tags:Afghan, Afghanistan, Arab, Associated Press, BBC, Buddha, Canada, Capital, Chinese, Dara, GMT, Governor, Haji, Hajj, Hamid Karzai, Human Rights, ISAF, ISO, Ireland, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Karzai, Khan, Minister of Finance, Nangarhar, Nangarhar Province, Opium, Pakistan, Pashtun, Persian, Premier League, President, Refugees, US, United States, Wikipedia, World Cup


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