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    * Marcus Antonius *

    مارکوس آنتونیوس ، مارک آنتونی


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    Roman general (83-30 BC) He helped Caesar drive Pompey from Italy in 49 and in 44 was made co-consul. After Caesar's assassination, Antony helped defeat republican forces at Philippi and took control of Rome's eastern provinces. On a mission to Egypt to question Cleopatra about her loyalty, he became her lover (41–40). Antony lost the Battle of Actium, and he and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, pursued by Octavian, they committed suicide. (Wikipedia) - Mark Antony   (Redirected from Marcus Antonius) For other Romans with a similar Latin name, see List of Romans named Marcus Antonius. For other people with a similar English name, see Mark Anthony. Marcus Antonius Triumvir of the Roman Republic Consul of the Roman Republic Preceded by Succeeded by Consul of the Roman Republic Preceded by Succeeded by People''s Tribune of the Roman Republic Personal details Born Died Spouse(s) Children Religion Military service Allegiance Service/branch Years of service Rank Battles/wars
    Bust of Mark Antony in Vatican City
    In office 27 November 43 BC – 31 December 33 BC Serving with Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
    In office 1 January 34 BC – 31 December 34 BC Serving with Lucius Scribonius Libo
    Lucius Cornificius and Sextus Pompeius
    Octavian and Lucius Volcatius Tullus
    In office 1 January 44 BC – 31 December 44 BC Serving with Julius Caesar
    Julius Caesar
    Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
    In office 1 January 49 BC – 7 January 49 BC
    14 January 83 BC Rome, Roman Republic
    1 August 30 BC Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt
    Fadia (dates unknown)
    Antonia Hybrida Minor (?–47 BC)
    Fulvia (46–40 BC)
    Octavia Minor (40–32 BC)
    Cleopatra (32–30 BC)
    • Antonia Prima
    • Marcus Antonius Antyllus
    • Iullus Antonius
    • Antonia Major
    • Antonia Minor
    • Alexander Helios
    • Cleopatra Selene II
    • Ptolemy Philadelphus (Cleopatra)
    Roman Paganism
     Roman Republic
    Roman Army
    54–30 BC
    Proconsul
    • Gallic Wars
    • Caesar''s Civil War
    • Post-Caesarian Civil War
    • Liberators'' civil war
      • Battle of Philippi
    • Roman–Parthian Wars
    • Final Roman Civil War
      • Battle of Actium

    Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N; January 14, 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

    Antony was an important supporter of and military commander for Julius Caesar during his conquest of Gaul and subsequent civil war. Caesar appointed Antony the administrator of Italy while he eliminated his political opponents in Greece, North Africa, and Spain. After Caesar''s assassination in 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Lepidus, one of Caesar''s generals, and Caesar''s adoptive son Octavian in a three-man dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate. The Triumvirate defeated Caesar''s murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC and divided government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome''s eastern provinces, including Rome''s client kingdom of Ptolemaic Egypt ruled by Queen Cleopatra, and command of Rome''s war against Parthia.

    Relations within the Triumvirate were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC when Antony married Octavian''s sister Octavia. Despite his marriage, Antony continued his love affair with Cleopatra, further straining political ties to Rome. With Lepidus expelled in 36 BC, the Triumvirate finally broke up in 33 BC as disagreements between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil war in 31 BC. The Roman Senate, at Octavian''s direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Antony was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium the same year. Defeated, Antony fled with Cleopatra back to Egypt where he committed suicide.

    With Antony dead, Octavian was left as the undisputed master of the Roman world. Octavian would assume the title Augustus and would reign as the first Roman emperor.

    Contents

    Early life

    A member of the plebeian Antonia clan (gens), Antony was born in Rome on January 14, 83 BC. His father and namesake was Marcus Antonius Creticus, son of the noted orator by the same name who had been murdered during the Marian Terror of the winter of 87–86 BC. His mother was Julia Antonia, a distant cousin of Julius Caesar. Antony was an infant at the time of Lucius Cornelius Sulla''s march on Rome in 82 BC.

    Antony''s brother Lucius, on a coin issued at Ephesus during his consulship in 41 BC

    According to the Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero, Antony''s father was incompetent and corrupt, and was only given power because he was incapable of using or abusing it effectively. In 74 BC he was given military command to defeat the pirates of the Mediterranean, but he died in Crete in 71 BC without making any significant progress. The elder Antony''s death left Antony and his brothers, Lucius and Gaius, in the care of their mother. Julia later married Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, an eminent member of the old Patrician nobility. Lentulus, despite exploiting his political success for financial gain, was constantly in debt due to the extravagance of his lifestyle. He was a major figure in the Second Catilinarian Conspiracy and was summarily executed on the orders of the Consul Cicero in 63 BC for his involvement. His death resulted in a feud between the Antonia and the famous orator.

    Antony''s early life was characterized by lack of proper parental guidance. According to the historian Plutarch, he spent his teenage years wandering through Rome with his brothers and friends gambling, drinking, and becoming involved in scandalous love affairs. According to Cicero, he had a homosexual relationship with Gaius Scribonius Curio. There is little reliable information on his political activity as a young man, although it is known that he was an associate of Publius Clodius Pulcher and his street gang. He may also have been involved in the Lupercal cult as he was referred to as a priest of this order later in life. By age twenty, Antony had amassed an enormous debt. Hoping to escape his creditors, Antony fled to Greece in 58 BC, where he studied philosophy and rhetoric at Athens.

    Early career Military service

    In 57 BC, Antony joined the military staff of Aulus Gabinius, the Proconsul of Syria, as chief of the cavalry. The appointment marks the beginning of his military career. As Consul the previous year alongside Antony''s mentor Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gabinius had exiled Cicero.

    Hyrcanus II, the Roman-supported Hasmonean High Priest of Judea, fled Jerusalem to Gabinius to seek protection against his rival and son-in-law Alexander. Years earlier in 63 BC, the Roman general Pompey had captured him and his father, King Aristobulus II, during his war against the remnant of the Seleucid Empire. Pompey had deposed Aristobulus and installed Hyrcanus as Rome’s client ruler over Judea. Antony achieved his first military distinctions after securing important victories at Alexandrium and Machaerus. With the rebellion defeated by 56 BC, Gabinius restored Hyrcanus to his position as High Priest.

    Bust of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes.

    The following year, in 55 BC, Gabinius intervened in the political affairs of Ptolemaic Egypt. Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes had been deposed in a rebellion led by his daughter Berenice IV in 58 BC, forcing him to seek asylum in Rome. During Pompey’s conquests years earlier, Ptolemy had received the support of Pompey, who named him an ally of Rome. Gabinius’ invasion sought to restore Ptolemy to his throne. This was done against the orders of the Senate but with the approval of Pompey, then Rome’s leading politician, and only after the deposed king provided a 10,000 talent bribe. The Greek historian Plutarch records it was Antony who convinced Gabinius to finally act. After defeating the frontier forces of the Egyptian kingdom, Gabinius''s army proceeded to attack the palace guards but the guards surrendered before a battle commenced. With Ptolemy XII restored as Rome’s client king, Gabinius garrisoned two thousand Roman soldiers, later known as the Gabiniani, in Alexandria to ensure Ptolemy’s authority. In return for its support, Rome exercised consideration power over the kingdom’s affairs, particularly control over the kingdom’s revenues and crop yields.

    During the campaign in Egypt, Antony first met Cleopatra, the then 14 year old daughter of Ptolemy XII. The Roman historian Appian of Alexandria later recorded his desire for the Egyptian princess began at this meeting.

    While Antony was serving Gabinius in the East, the domestic political situation had changed in Rome. In 60 BC, a secret agreement (known as the "First Triumvirate") was entered into between three men to control the Republic: Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompey Magnus, and Gaius Julius Caesar. Crassus, Rome''s wealthiest man, had defeated the slave rebellion of Spartacus in 70 BC; Pompey conquered much of the Eastern Mediterranean in the 60''s BC; Caesar was Rome''s Pontifex Maximus and a former general in Spain. In 59 BC, Caesar, with funding from Crassus, was elected Consul to pursue legislation favorable to Crassus and Pompey''s interests. In return, Caesar was assigned the governorship of Illyricum, Cisalpine Gaul, and Transalpine Gaul for five years beginning in 58 BC. Caesar used his governorship as a launch point for his conquest of free Gaul. In 55 BC, Crassus and Pompey served as Consuls while Caesar had his command extended for another five years. Rome was effectively under the absolute power of these three men. The Triumvirate used the demagogue Publius Clodius Pulcher, Antony''s patron, to exile their political rivals, notably Cicero and Cato the Younger.

    During his early military service, Antony married his cousin Antonia Hybrida Minor, the daughter of Gaius Antonius Hybrida. Sometime between 54 and 49 BC, the union produces a single daughter, Antonia Prima. It is unclear if this is Antony''s first marriage.

    Service under Caesar Gallic Wars See also: Gallic WarsThe ancient Mediterranean in 50 BC at the end of Caesar''s Gallic Wars, with the territory of Rome in yellow.

    Antony''s association with Publius Clodius Pulcher allowed him to achieve greater prominence. Clodius, through the influence of his benefactor Marcus Licinius Crassus, had developed a positive political relationship with Julius Caesar. Clodius secured Antony a position on Caesar''s military staff in 54 BC, joining his conquest of Gaul. Serving under Caesar, Antony demonstrated excellent military leadership. Despite a temporary alienation later in life, Antony and Caesar developed friendly relations which would continue until Caesar''s assassination in 44 BC. Caesar''s influence secured greater political advancement for Antony. After a year of service in Gaul, Caesar dispatched Antony to Rome to formally begin his political career, receiving election as Quaestor for 52 BC as a member of the Populares faction. Assigned to assist Caesar, Antony returned to Gaul and commanded Caesar''s cavalry during his victory at the Battle of Alesia against the Gallic High King Vercingetorix. Following his year in office, Antony was promoted by Caesar to the rank of Legate and assigned command of two legions (approximately 7,500 total soldiers).

    During this time, the alliance between Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus had effectively ended. Caesar''s daughter Julia, who had married Pompey to secure the alliance, had died in 54 BC while Crassus had been killed at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC. Without the stability they provided, the divide between Caesar and Pompey grew ever larger. Caesar''s glory in conquering Gaul had served to further strain his alliance with Pompey, who, having grown jealous of his former ally, had drifted away from Caesar''s democratic Populares party towards the oligarchic Optimates faction led by Cato. The supporters of Caesar, led by Clodius, and the supporters of Pompey, led by Titus Annius Milo, routinely clashed. In 52 BC, Milo succeeded in assassinating Clodius, resulting in widespread riots and the burning of Senate meeting house, the Curia Hostilia, by Clodius'' street gang. Anarchy resulted, causing the Senate to look to Pompey. Fearing the persecutions of Lucius Cornelius Sulla only thirty-years earlier, they avoided granting Pompey the dictatorship by instead naming him sole Consul for the year, giving him extraordinary but limited powers. Pompey ordered armed soldiers into the city to restore order and to eliminate the remnants of Clodius'' gang.

    Antony remained on Caesar''s military staff until 50 BC, helping mopping-up actions across Gaul to secure Caesar''s conquest. With the war over, Antony was sent back to Rome to act as Caesar''s protector against Pompey and the other Optimates. With the support of Caesar, who as Pontifex Maximus was head of the Roman religion, Antony was appointed the College of Augurs, an importantly priestly office responsible for interpreting the will of the Roman gods by studying the flight of birds. All public actions required a favorable auspices, granting the college considerable influence. Antony was then elected as one of the ten People''s Tribunes for 49 BC. From this position, Antony could protect Caesar from his political enemies by vetoing any actions unfavorable to his patron.

    Civil War

    Tags:Africa, Alexandria, Assassination, Athens, Augustus, Battle of Carrhae, Caesar, Carrhae, Cleopatra, Crassus, Egypt, Egyptian, Governor, Greece, Greek, Italy, Jerusalem, Magnus, Marcus Antonius, Mediterranean, Parthia, Parthian, Pharaoh, Pompey, Post, Ptolemy, Roman, Rome, Seleucid, Senate, Spain, Syria, Terror, Vatican, Wikipedia


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