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    * Mansur Al-Hallaj *

    منصور الحٌلاج


    Iranian_Flag_Hand_Love_Heart.jpg
    (Wikipedia) - Mansur Al-Hallaj "Hallaj" redirects here. For places in Iran, see Hallaj, Iran. Mansur al-Hallaj Title Born Died Ethnicity Era Region Creed Main interest(s) Notable idea(s)
    The execution of "Mansur Al-Hallaj" at the behest of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtadir
    858 Fars
    26 March 922 Baghdad
    Persian
    Medieval
    Iraq, Persia
    Originally Hanbali Sufi and later Qarmatian Batiniyya
    Sufi poetry, Dhikr
    Mysticism, Arabic Sufi poetry
    Influenced by
    Influenced
    • Hafiz Shirazi, Attar of Nishapur, Sanai, Rumi, Balım Sultan, Sachal Sarmast
    Sufism and Tariqa
    Ideas
    • Abdal
    • Baqaa
    • Dervish
    • Dhawq
    • Fakir
    • Fanaa
    • Haal
    • Keramat
    • Haqiqa
    • Ihsan
    • Irfan
    • Kashf
    • Lataif
    • Manzil
    • Marifa
    • Nafs
    • Noor
    • Qalandar
    • Qutb
    • Silsila
    • Sufi cosmology
    • Sufi metaphysics
    • Sufi philosophy
    • Sufi poetry
    • Sufi psychology
    • Sulook
    • Tazkiah
    • Wali
    • Yaqeen
    Practices
    • Anasheed
    • Dhikr
    • Haḍra
    • Muraqaba
    • Qawwali
    • Sama
    • Whirling
    • Ziyarat
    Sufi orders
    • Akbarī
    • Alevī
    • Alians
    • Ashrafia
    • Azeemia
    • Ba ''Alawī
    • Bayramī
    • Bektashī
    • Burhāniyya
    • Chishtī
    • Galibī
    • Gulshanī
    • Ḥurūfī
    • Idrīsī
    • Jelvetī
    • Jerrahī
    • Khalidī
    • Khalwatī
    • Kubrāwī
    • Madarī
    • Malāmatī
    • Mawlāwī
    • Mourīdī
    • Noorbakshia
    • Naqshbandī
    • Naqshbandi Uwaisī
    • Nasuhī
    • Ni''matullāhī
    • Nuqtawī
    • Qadirī
    • Qalāndārī
    • Rifa''ī
    • Safāvī
    • Shadhilī
    • Shattārī
    • Suhrawardī
    • Sunbulī
    • Tijanī
    • Ussakī
    • Uwaisī
    • Zahedī
    Notable early Sufis
    • Abdūl-Khāliq Ghujdawanī
    • Abdullah Ansari
    • Abdūl-Qādir Gilanī
    • Abūl-Khāyr
    • ad-Dağhestānī
    • Abu Bakr al-Aydarus al-Adeni
    • Afaq Khoja
    • Ahmad Ghazālī
    • Ahmed Yasavī
    • al-Ajami
    • al-Badawi
    • Al-Basri
    • Al-Fozail
    • Al-Ghazālī
    • Al-Hallaj
    • Ali-Shir Nava''i
    • al-Khārāqānī
    • Al-Qāsim
    • al-Qayṣarī
    • al-Qunawī
    • Amīr Kulal
    • Ardabilī
    • Ata Allah
    • Attar
    • Balım Sultan
    • Baba Fakruddin
    • Baha ūd-Dīn Naqshband
    • Bande Nawāz
    • Baqī Billah
    • Bayazid Bastamī
    • Bhita''ī
    • Bulleh Shah
    • Dehlāvī
    • El-Desoukî
    • Arbili
    • Erzurumī
    • Farīd ūd-Dīn
    • Fuzûlî
    • Gharīb Nawāz
    • Ghulam Farīd
    • Gül Baba
    • Hajji Bayram
    • Hajji Bektash
    • Hāfez-e Shīrāzī
    • Halidī Bağdādī
    • Haddad
    • Hamadānī
    • Hansvī
    • Harabatī Baba
    • Harooni
    • Hujwirī
    • ibn Adham
    • ibn ʿArabī
    • Iraqi
    • Jābir ibn Hayyān
    • Ja''far al-Sadiq
    • Jahangasht
    • Jamī
    • Jan-e-Jānāān
    • Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani
    • Mir Sham ud-Din Iraqi
    • Karkhī
    • Magtymguly Pyragy
    • Jazoulī
    • Muhammad al-Faqih Muqaddam
    • Jilī
    • Junayd Baġdādī
    • Kākī
    • Kaliyarī
    • Omar Khayyam
    • Khusrow
    • Kubrā
    • Mahmud Hüdayī
    • Nāimī
    • Najib al-Suhrawardī
    • Nasir Khusraw
    • Nasīmī
    • Nasreddin Hoca
    • Nathar Vali
    • Ni''matullāh Wali
    • Nizām ūd-Dīn
    • Noorbaksh Qahistani
    • Nurī
    • Otman Baba
    • Pir Sultan
    • Qutb ūd-Dīn Haydār
    • Qutb ūd-Dīn Shīrāzī
    • Rabbānī
    • Rabia Basri
    • Razī
    • Rifa''ī
    • Rukn-e-Alam
    • Rūmī
    • Saadī
    • Sabakhī
    • Salman al-Farisī
    • Sanai
    • Sarı Saltuk
    • Sheik Edebali
    • Semnanī
    • Silistrevī
    • Shadhilī
    • Shah Waliullah
    • Shahāb al-Dīn Suhrawardī
    • Shams Tabrizī
    • Shaykh Gālib
    • Shiblī
    • Sultan Walad
    • Surkh Bukharī
    • Taj al-Dīn Gilanī
    • Umar al-Suhrawardī
    • Sahl al-Tustari
    • Yunus Emre
    • Zakariya
    • Zarruq
    • Zū''l-Nūn al-Misrī
    Notable modern Sufis
    • Abdūl-Khāqeem Arvāsī
    • Abdal Hakīm Murad
    • Abdalqadir as-Sufi
    • Ahmet Kayhan Dede
    • Ahmad al-Alawi
    • al-Shaghouri
    • Qalandar Baba Auliya
    • Khwaja Shamsuddin Azeemi
    • Baba Rexheb
    • Bawa Muhaiyaddeen
    • Feisal Abdul Rauf
    • Fethullah Gülen
    • Gohar Shahi
    • Kuşçuoğlu
    • Ghulam Mustafa
    • Hisham Kabbani
    • Hüseyin Hilmi Işık
    • Mai Safoora
    • Meher Ali
    • Muhammad Malikī
    • Nazīm Al-Haqqānī
    • Syed Muhammad Shah Noorani
    • Syed Waheed Ashraf
    • Nuh Keller
    • Nooruddeen Durkee
    • Omar Shah
    • Osman Nuri Topbaş
    • Qadeer Piya
    • Reshad Feild
    • Saheb Qibla Fultali
    • Said al-Chirkawi
    • Said Nursī
    • Shahab
    • Sufi Barkat Ali
    • Syed Shujaat
    • Kabir Helminski
    • Tahir Allauddin
    • Tajuddin Babaī
    • Waris Ali Shah
    • Zaheen
    • Abdullah al-Harari
    Topics in Sufism
    • Tawhid
    • Shariah
    • Haqiqah
    • Art
    • History
    • Music
    • Poetry
    • Shrines
    • Texts
    Portal
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    Mansur al-Hallaj (Arabic: ابو المغيث الحسين بن منصور الحلاج‎ Abū al-Muġīṭ Husayn Manṣūr al-Ḥallāğ; Persian: منصور حلاج‎ Mansūr-e Ḥallāj) (c. 858 – March 26, 922) (Hijri c. 244 AH – 309 AH) was a Persian mystic, revolutionary writer and teacher of Sufism, who wrote exclusively in Arabic. He is most famous for his poetry, accusation of heresy and for his execution at the orders of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtadir after a long, drawn-out investigation.

    I saw my Lord with the eye of the heart

    He asked, ‘Who are You?’ I replied, ‘You’.

    He is a also prominent figure in Alevism and Bektashism, famous for his saying: "I am the Truth" (Anal Haq), which is confused by orthodox muslims for a claim to divinity. Sufi muslims link this quote to Quran verse 50:16: "And We have already created man and know what his soul whispers to him, and We are closer to him than jugular vein".

    Contents

    Early life

    Al-Hallaj was born around 858 in Fars province of Persia to a cotton-carder (Hallaj means "cotton-carder" in Arabic). His grandfather was a Zoroastrian. His father lived a simple life, and this form of lifestyle greatly interested the young Al-Hallaj. As a youngster he memorized the Qur''an and would often retreat from worldly pursuits to join other mystics in study. Al-Hallaj was originally a Hanbali Sufi Muslim and later turned to be a Qarmatian Batiniyya.

    Al-Hallaj later married and made a pilgrimage to Makkah, where he stayed for one year, facing the mosque, in fasting and total silence. After his stay at the city, he traveled extensively and wrote and taught along the way. He traveled as far as India and Central Asia gaining many followers, many of whom accompanied him on his second and third trips to Makkah. After this period of travel, he settled down in the Abbasid capital of Baghdad.

    During his early lifetime he was a disciple of Junayd Baghdadi and Amr al-Makki, but was later rejected by them both. Sahl al-Tustari was also one of Al-Hallaj''s early teachers.

    Teachings, arrest and imprisonment

    Among other Sufis, Al-Hallaj was an anomaly. Many Sufi masters felt that it was inappropriate to share mysticism with the masses, yet Al-Hallaj openly did so in his writings and through his teachings. He thus began to make enemies. This was exacerbated by occasions when he would fall into trances which he attributed to being in the presence of God.

    During one of these trances, he would utter أنا الحق Anā l-Ḥaqq "I am The Truth, " which was taken to mean that he was claiming to be God, since al-Ḥaqq "the Truth" is one of the Ninety Nine Names of Allah. In another controversial statement, al-Hallaj claimed "There is nothing wrapped in my turban but God, " and similarly he would point to his cloak and say, ما في جبتي إلا الله Mā fī jubbatī illā l-Lāh "There is nothing in my cloak but God." This type of mystical utterance is known as shath.

    Statements like these led to a long trial, and his subsequent imprisonment for 11 years in a Baghdad prison. He was publicly executed on March 26, 922.

    Works

    Hallaj wrote many works in both prose and poetry. His best known written work is the Kitab al-Tawasin (كتاب الطواسين), which includes two brief chapters devoted to a dialogue of Satan (Iblis) and God, where Satan refuses to bow to Adam, although God asks him to do so. His refusal is due to a misconceived idea of God''s uniqueness and because of his refusal to abandon himself to God in love. Hallaj criticizes the staleness of his adoration (Mason, 51-3). Al-Hallaj stated in this book:

    If you do not recognize God, at least recognize His sign, I am the creative truth —Ana al-Haqq—, because through the truth, I am eternal truth.

    Beliefs and principles Mystical universalism

    His method was one of "universalist mystical introspection: It was at the bottom of the heart that he looked for God and wanted to make others find Him. He believed one had to go beyond the forms of religious rites to reach divine reality. Thus, he used without hesitation the terminology of his opponents, which he set right and refined, ready to make himself hostage of the denominational logic of others. " (Massignon: "Perspective Transhistorique, " p. 76) Even beyond the Muslim faith, Hallaj was concerned with the whole of humanity, as he desired to communicate to them "that strange, patient and shameful, desire for God, which was characteristic for him. " (Massignon, p. 77) This was the reason for his voyage beyond the Muslim world (shafa''a) to India and China.

    Spiritual meaning of the pilgrimage to Makkah

    In the trial that led to his execution, he was accused of preaching against the pilgrimage to Makkah (the Hajj), which he, however, had performed three times. In reality, his concern was more with the spiritual meaning of Hajj, and he thus "spoke of the spiritual efficacy and legitimacy of symbolic pilgrimage in one''s own home. " (Mason, 25) For him, the most important part of the pilgrimage to Mecca was the prayer at Mount Arafat, commemorating the sacrifice of Abraham in an offering of oneself.

    Re-interpretation of the tawhid and desire for unification with God

    Al-Hallaj believed that it was only God who could pronounce Tawhid, whereas man''s prayer was to be one of kun, surrender to his will: "Love means to stand next to the Beloved, renouncing oneself entirely and transforming oneself in accordance to Him. " (Massignon, 74) He spoke of God as his "Beloved, " "Friend" "You, " and felt that "his only self was (God), " to the point that he could not even remember his own name. " (Mason, 26)

    DeathThe Execution of Mansur Hallaj

    Mansur believed in union with the Divine, that God was within him, and that he and God had become one and the same. Mansur was cut into many pieces because in the state of ecstasy he exclaimed Ana Abrar-al Haq "I am the Abrar of truth". He was executed in public in Baghdad. They cut him into pieces and then they burnt his remains. He kept repeating "I am the Truth" as they kept cutting his arms, legs, tongue and finally his head. He was smiling, even as they chopped off his head. Al-Hallaj wanted to testify of this relationship to God to others thus even asking his fellow Muslims to kill him (Massignon, 79) and accepting his execution, saying that "what is important for the ecstatic is for the One to reduce him to oneness. " (Massignon, 87) He also referred to the martyrdom of Christ, saying he also wanted to die "in the supreme confession of the cross" (Olivier Clément. Dio è carita, p. 41) Like Christ, he gave his execution a redemptive significance, believing as he did that his death "was uniting his beloved God and His community of Muslims against himself and thereby bore witness in extremis to the tawhid (the oneness) of both. " (Mason, 25)

    For his desire of oneness with God, many Muslims criticized him as a "''crypto-Christian'' for distorting the monotheistic revelation in a Christian way. " (Mason, 25). His death is described by Attar as a heroic act, as when they are taking him to court, a Sufi asks him: "What is love?" He answers: "You will see it today, tomorrow, and the day after tomorrow. " They killed him that day, burned him the next day and threw his ashes to the wind the day after that. "This is love, " Attar says. His legs were cut off, he smiled and said, "I used to walk the earth with these legs, now there''s only one step to heaven, cut that if you can. " And when his hands were cut off he paints his face with his own blood, when asked why, he says: "I have lost a lot of blood, and I know my face has turned yellow, I don''t want to look pale-faced (as of fear)... ."

    Contemporary views

    The writings of al-Hallaj are important to Sufi groups. His example is seen by some as one that should be emulated, especially his calm demeanor in the face of torture and his forgiving of his tormentors. Many honor him as an adept who came to realize the inherent divine nature of all men and women. While many Sufis theorize that Hallaj was a reflection of God''s truth, scholars of the other Islamic schools of thought continue to see him as a heretic and a deviant.

    The supporters of Mansur have interpreted his statement as meaning, "God has emptied me of everything but Himself. " According to them, Mansur never denied God''s oneness and was a strict monotheist. However, he believed that the actions of man when performed in total accordance with God''s pleasure, lead to a blissful unification with him. His life was studied extensively by the French scholar of Islam, Louis Massignon.

    Tags:Abbasid, Alam, Allah, Arab, Arabic, Ardabil, Ashraf, Asia, Baghdad, Bastam, Bayazid Bastami, Bektash, Central Asia, China, Christ, Christian, Erzurum, Fars, French, Ghaz, Gilan, Hafiz, Hajj, Hijri, India, Iran, Iraq, Iraqi, Islam, Islamic, Jam, Kayhan, Khayyam, Lord, Mansur Al-Hallaj, Mecca, Mir, Muslim, Naqshband, Nasir Khusraw, Omar Khayyam, Persia, Persian, Quran, Rumi, Sayyid, Semnan, Shah, Shahi, Sufism, Sultan, Tabriz, Wikipedia, Zoroastrian


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