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    * Manaus *

    ماناوس


    Iranian_Flag_Hand_Love_Heart.jpg
    (Wikipedia) - Manaus "Manaos" redirects here. For other uses, see Manaos (disambiguation).

    Coordinates: 03°06′00″S 60°01′00″W / 3.10000°S 60.01667°W / -3.10000; -60.01667

    Manaus Municipality of Manaus Country State Founded Government  • Mayor Area  • Municipality Elevation Population (2013)  • Municipality  • Density  • Metro Time zone Postal Code Area code(s) Website
    Municipality
    Top left: Teatro Amazonas; top right: Manaus from Cidade Nova; 2nd left: Manaus–Iranduba Bridge and Rio Negro; 2nd right: sightseeing boat at Meeting of Waters; 3rd left: Rio Negro; 3rd right: San Sebastian Cathedral; bottom: Nossa Senhora das Graças area.
    Flag Seal
    Nickname(s): A Paris dos Trópicos (The Paris of the Tropics)
    Location of Manaus municipality (red) in Amazonas state
    ManausLocation in Brazil
    Coordinates: 03°06′0″S 60°01′0″W / 3.10000°S 60.01667°W / -3.10000; -60.01667
     Brazil
    Amazonas
    October 24, 1669
    Arthur Virgílio Neto (PSDB)
    11,401.06 km2 (4,401.97 sq mi)
    92 m (302 ft)
    2,020,301 (7th)
    173.85/km2 (450.29/sq mi)
    2,316,173 (11th)
    AST (UTC-4)
    69000-000
    +55 (92)
    Manaus, Amazonas

    Manaus (Portuguese pronunciation:  or ), or Manáos before 1939, or (formerly) Lugar de Barra do Rio Negro, is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in northern Brazil. It is situated at the confluence of the Negro and Solimões rivers. With a population of two million, it is the most populous city of Amazonas.

    The city was founded in 1693-94 as the Fort of São José do Rio Negro. It was elevated to a town in 1832 with the name of "Manaus", an altered spelling of the indigenous Manaós peoples, and legally transformed into a city on October 24, 1848, with the name of Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro, Portuguese for "The City of the Margins of Black River". On September 4, 1856 it returned to its original name.

    Manaus is located in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, and access to the city is primarily through boat or airplane. This isolation helped preserve both the nature as well as the culture of the city. The culture of Manaus, more than in any other urban area of Brazil, preserves the habits of Native Brazilian tribes. The city is the main entrance to visit the fauna and flora of the Brazilian Amazon. Few places in the world afford such a variety of plants, birds, insects, and fishes.

    It was known at the beginning of the century, as "Heart of the Amazon" and "City of the Forest". Currently its main economic engine is the Industrial Pool of Manaus, the famous Free Economic Zone. The city has a free port and an international airport. Its manufactures include electronics, chemical products, and soap; there are distilling and ship construction industries. Manaus also exports Brazil nuts, rubber, jute and rosewood oil. It has a cathedral, opera house, zoological and botanical gardens, an ecopark and regional and native peoples museums.

    With a population of 2 million people in 2014, Manaus is the most populous city in the Brazilian Amazon area and the 7th most populous in the country. Located on the north bank of the Negro River, 11 miles (18 km) above the meeting of the rivers where the Negro merges with the Solimões, Manaus is 900 miles (1,450 km) inland from the Atlantic Ocean. It is the hub of tourism for the rivers, the jungle lodges and the river cruises.

    The Solimões and Negro rivers meet in Manaus and join to form the Amazon River (using the Brazilian definition of the river; elsewhere, Solimões is considered the upper part of the Amazon). Rubber made it the richest city in South America during the late 1800s. Rubber also helped Manaus earn its nickname, the "Paris of the Tropics". Many wealthy European families settled in Manaus and brought their love for sophisticated European art, architecture and culture with them. Manaus is also a duty-free zone, which has encouraged development in the region.

    Manaus was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. It was the only host city in the Amazon rainforest and the most geographically isolated, being further north and west than any of the other host cities.

    Contents

    HistoryManaus in 1865Public Library of the AmazonEarly settlement

    The history of the European colonization of Manaus began in 1499 with the Spanish discovery of the mouth of the Amazon River. The Spanish then continued to colonize the region north of Brazil. Development continued in 1668-1669 with the building of the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro by Portugal in order to ensure its predominance in the region, especially against the Dutch, at that time headquartered in what is today Suriname. The fort was constructed in rock and clay, with four cannon guarding the curtains. It continued to function for more than 100 years. Next to the fort there were many indigenous mestizos, who helped in its construction and began to live in the vicinity.

    The population grew so much that in 1695, the missionaries (Carmelite, Jesuit, Franciscan) built a nearby chapel dedicated as Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Our Lady of the Conception), who in time became the patron saint of the city. The Royal Charter of March 3 of 1755, created the capitancy of São José do Rio Negro, with capital in Mariuá (now Barcelos), but the governor, Lobo D''Almada, fearing Spanish invasions, the seat went back to Lugar de Barra in 1791. Being located at the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, it was a strategic point. On November 13 of 1832, Lugar da Barra was elevated to town and named Manaus. On October 24 of 1848, with Law 145 of the Provincial Assembly of Para, was renamed City of Barra do Rio Negro. On September 4 of 1856 the governor Herculano Ferreira Pena finally gave it the name "Manaus".

    Cabanagem

    The Cabanagem was the revolt in which blacks, Indians and mestizos fought against the white political elite and took power in 1835. The Cabanagem reduced the population of Grão-Pará from about 100,000 to 60,000. The entry of the High Amazonas (Manaus today, which was the cradle of the city in the Western Amazon) in Cabanagem was crucial for the birth of the current state of the Amazon. During the brief period of revolution, the Cabanos of the High Amazon, bands of rebels, roamed throughout the region, and in most settlements their arrival was greeted by the non-white population''s spontaneously joining their ranks and there was a greater number of adherents to the movement. With that there was an integration of people in the region thus forming the state.

    Rubber boom

    Manaus was at the center of the Amazon region''s rubber boom during the late 19th century. For a time, it was "one of the gaudiest cities of the world". One historian has written, "No extravagance, however absurd, deterred" the rubber barons. "If one rubber baron bought a vast yacht, another would install a tame lion in his villa, and a third would water his horse on champagne." The decadence extended to a grand opera house, vast domes and gilded balconies, and marble, glass, and crystal, from around Europe. The opera house cost ten million (public-funded) dollars, but its foolhardiness was demonstrated by the death by yellow fever of half the members of one visiting opera troupe. The opera house, called the Teatro Amazonas, still exists today; it has been restored, was used in the Werner Herzog film Fitzcarraldo, and after a type of interlude lasting almost 90 years, presents operas once again.

    When the seeds of the rubber tree were smuggled out of the Amazon region, Brazil lost its monopoly on the product and Manaus fell into poverty. The rubber boom had brought electricity to the city before it arrived in many European cities, but the end of the rubber boom made the generators too expensive to run, and the city lost artificial lighting for years.

    The declaration of a duty-free zone in Manaus added to the economic prosperity of the city.

    Geography

    The largest city in northern Brazil, Manaus occupies an area of 11,401.06 square kilometres (4,402 sq mi), with a density of 144.4 inhabitants/km². It is the neighboring city of Presidente Figueiredo, Careiro, Iranduba, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara, Amazonas and Novo Airão.

    Climate

    Manaus has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system, with more or less consistent temperatures all year round. Because the driest month, August, sees less than 60 mm (2.4 in) of precipitation, the city''s climate falls under the tropical monsoon climate category instead of the tropical rainforest climate category.

    Climate data for Manaus (1961–1990) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Daily mean °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Rainfall mm (inches) Avg. rainy days (≥ 1 mm)  % humidity Mean monthly sunshine hours
    35.4 (95.7) 36.1 (97) 36.2 (97.2) 35.1 (95.2) 33.8 (92.8) 33.7 (92.7) 35.1 (95.2) 37.6 (99.7) 38.0 (100.4) 37.5 (99.5) 38.2 (100.8) 35.4 (95.7) 38.2 (100.8)
    30.5 (86.9) 30.4 (86.7) 30.6 (87.1) 30.7 (87.3) 30.6 (87.1) 31 (88) 31.3 (88.3) 32.6 (90.7) 32.9 (91.2) 32.8 (91) 32.1 (89.8) 31.3 (88.3) 31.4 (88.5)
    26.1 (79) 25.9 (78.6) 26 (79) 26.2 (79.2) 26.2 (79.2) 26.4 (79.5) 26.5 (79.7) 27.3 (81.1) 27.7 (81.9) 27.7 (81.9) 27.2 (81) 26.6 (79.9) 26.7 (80.1)
    23.1 (73.6) 23.1 (73.6) 23.2 (73.8) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23 (73) 22.7 (72.9) 23 (73) 23.5 (74.3) 23.7 (74.7) 23.7 (74.7) 23.5 (74.3) 23.26 (73.81)
    18.5 (65.3) 19.5 (67.1) 20.0 (68) 18.5 (65.3) 19.5 (67.1) 19.5 (67.1) 12.1 (53.8) 18.1 (64.6) 20.3 (68.5) 20.8 (69.4) 18.3 (64.9) 19.5 (67.1) 12.1 (53.8)
    264.2 (10.402) 289.5 (11.398) 335.4 (13.205) 311.2 (12.252) 279.2 (10.992) 115.4 (4.543) 85.4 (3.362) 47.3 (1.862) 73.7 (2.902) 112.6 (4.433) 173.8 (6.843) 219.6 (8.646) 2,307.4 (90.843)
    19 18 20 18 17 11 8 6 6 9 12 16 160
    86 87 88 87 87 83 80 77 77 79 81 85 83.1
    114.3 87.7 98.5 111.9 148.6 184.8 214.2 225 200.5 171.2 140.9 130.9 1,828.5
    Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).
    VegetationAerial view of the Amazon Rainforest, near Manaus

    The Amazon represents over half of the planet''s remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia. As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than one-third of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest.

    Green areas

    Despite being located in the Amazon, Manaus has few green areas. The largest green areas of the city are:

    DemographicsAmazon Opera HouseAmazonas Philharmonic Orchestra

    According to the IBGE of 2012, there were 1,861,906 people residing in the city, and 2,283,906 people residing in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus. The population density was 149.9 inhabitants per square kilometre (388 /sq mi). The racial makeup of the city was 63.93% Mixed race, 31.88% White, 2.43% Black, 0.87% Asian or Amerindian.

    The population of Manaus is 1,861,838 inhabitants (as performed by counting IBGE in 2012), making it the seventh largest city in Brazil, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Brasilia, Fortaleza and Belo Horizonte.

    The city''s population growth is above the national average, and 10% above the average for the capital of the country. Most of the population is located in the North and East regions of the city, and the New Town (northern area) the neighborhood is the most populous, with more than 260,000 residents.

    According to the results of the last census, the city''s population increased from 343,038 inhabitants in 1960 to 622,733 inhabitants in 1970. Hence by 1990 the population grew to 1,025,979 inhabitants, increasing its density to 90.0 inhabitants / km ².

    Religion

    Although it has been developed along a predominantly Catholic social matrix, both because of colonization and immigration—even today the majority of Manauenses are Catholic, one can find dozens of different Protestant denominations in the city, as well as the practice of Judaism, Candomblé, Islam and spiritualism, among others. The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manaus.

    The city has a very diverse presence of Protestant or Reformed faiths, such as the Presbyterian Church, Calvary Chapel, For Christ International Church of Grace of God, Pentecostal Church of God in Brazil, Methodist Church, the Episcopal Anglican Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Baptist Church, an Assembly of God Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, the Jehovah''s Witnesses among others. These churches are experiencing considerable growth, mainly in the outskirts of the city. A LDS temple has been built in the city, the 6th in Brazil.

    Districts and regionsSatellite view of the cityMetropolitan region

    The Metropolitan Region of Manaus (RMM), which has 2,283,906 inhabitants (counting the population IBGE in 2012) is a metropolitan area of Brazil that comprises eight cities of the Amazonas state, but without conurbation.

    Regions

    Manaus is divided into seven regions: North, Southern, Central-South, East, West, Mid-West and Rural area. The eastern region of the city is the most populated, with approximately 600,000 inhabitants (2007). The northern region of the city that has the highest rate of population growth in recent years, and has the largest neighborhood of the city, the New Town. The Center-South region has the highest per capita income.

    Neighborhoods

    The first neighborhood established in Manaus was Educandos. From there, other areas of the city began receiving human occupation, with the arrival of migrants from other regions of Brazil.

    Manaus has the largest neighborhood of Latin America, the neighborhood of New Town (Cidade Nova), which has 264,449 inhabitants, but it is estimated that the population exceeds 300,000 inhabitants. The New Town is larger than all the cities inside the Amazonas state.

    With the permanence and the strengthening of Free Economic Zone of Manaus, the city began to receive investments and constant migration of people from many parts of the state and northern Brazil.

    The wealthiest neighborhood in Manaus is Adrianópolis, located in the Central-South Area of the city. Downtown Manaus, despite what most people think, is actually located in the Southern area of the city, next to Rio Negro River. After years of development, the historical center has been neglected by the authorities and it has become an area mostly for commerce and poor housing. There is a plan made by the current Mayor to restore the city centre to its former glory by removing beggars and irregular sellers from sidewalks and by doing that provide more safety for tourists and locals who are trying to walk and encounter the history of the city. All these plans were made due to the World Cup and are currently being undertaken by the authorities.

    Economy

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