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    * Malik *


    (Wikipedia) - Malik For other uses, see Malik (disambiguation). "Mulk" redirects here. For the villages in Iran, see Mulk, Iran.
    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2012)

    Malik, Melik, Malka, or Melech (Arabic: ملك‎; Hebrew: מֶלֶךְ‎) is originally an East Semitic (Akkadian/Assyrian/Babylonian, Eblaite) and later a Northwest Semitic (e.g. Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Syriac, Amorite, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Central Semitic (Arabic) word meaning "King", also interpreted as "Prince" or "Chieftain".

    Although the early forms of the name were to be found among the Pre-Arab and Pre-Islamic Semites of The Levant, Canaan, and Mesopotamia, it has since been adopted in various other, mainly but not exclusively Islamized or Arabized non-Semitic Asian languages for their ruling princes and to render kings elsewhere. It is also sometimes used in derived meanings. ''Al-Malik'' (literally "The King") is one of the names of God in Islam.

    The female version of Malik is Malikah (Arabic: ملكة‎) (or its various spellings such as Malekeh or Melike), meaning "queen".

    The name Malik was originally found among various pre-Arab and non-Muslim Semitic peoples such as the indigenous ethnic Assyrians of Iraq, Amorites, Jews, Arameans, Mandeans, Syriacs, Nabateans and pre-Islamic Arabs. It has since been spread among various predominantly Muslim and non-Semitic peoples in India, Nepal, Philippines, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Iran, Malaysia and Pakistan, for example, in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Delhi.


    Etymology Further information: Moloch

    The earliest form of the name Malka was used to denote a prince or chieftain in the East Semitic Akkadian language of the Mesopotamian states of Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea. The Northwest Semitic mlk was the title of the rulers of the primarily Amorite, Sutean, Canaanite, Phoenician and Aramean city-states of the Levant and Canaan from the Late Bronze Age. Eventual derivatives include the Aramaic, Neo-Assyrian, Mandic and Arabic forms: Malik, Malek, Mallick, Malkha, Malka, Malkai and the Hebrew form Melek.

    Moloch has been traditionally interpreted the epithet of a god, known as "the king" like Baal was an epithet "the master" and Adon an epithet "the lord", but in the case of Moloch purposely mispronounced as Molek instead of Melek using the vowels of Hebrew bosheth "shame".

    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013)

    Primarily a malik is the ruling monarch of a kingdom, called mamlaka, title used by the former slaves aka Mamluks (مملوك) royal dynasty of Egypt; that term is however also used in a broader sense, like realm, for rulers with another, generally lower titles, as in Sahib al-Mamlaka. Malik is also used for tribal leaders, e.g. among the Pashtuns.

    Some Arab kingdoms are presently ruled by a Malik:

    Other historic realms under a Malik include:

    In Mughal and colonial India, the princely state of Zainabad, Vanod was ruled by a Malek Shri (Shri is an emphatical honorific without intrinsic meaning).

    The title Malik has also been used in languages which adopted Arabic loanwords (mainly, not exclusively, in Muslim cultures), for various princely or lower ranks and functions.

    The word Malik is sometimes used in Arabic to render roughly equivalent titles of foreign rulers, for instance the chronicler Baha al-Din Ibn Shaddad refers to King Richard I of England as Malik al-Inkitar.

    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013)
    Compound and derived titles
    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013)

    The following components are frequently part of titles, notably in Persian (also used elsewhere, e.g. in India''s Moghol tradition):

    In the great Indian Muslim salute state of Hyderabad, a first rank- vassal of the Mughal padshah (emperor) imitating his lofty Persian court protocol, the word Molk became on itself one of the titles used for ennobled Muslim retainers of the ruling Nizam''s court, in fact the third in rank, only below Jah (the highest) and Umara, but above Daula, Jang, Nawab, Khan Bahadur and Khan; for the Nizam''s Hindu retainers different titles were used, the equivalent of Molk being Vant.

    Usage In South Asia Further information: Kakazai, Malik (Punjab), Malik (Bihar), Malik (Jat) and Malik (Gujarat)

    chandor Malik {Delhi}

    With the arrival of Arabs and Persians in the region, the term Malik became popular amongst rulers and aristocrats. Soon after, it became the most prestigious title of them all in the region.

    Pashtun usage

    The Arabic term came to be adopted as a term for "tribal chieftain" in Afghanistan and the tribal areas of Pakistan, especially among Pashtuns, for a tribal leader or a chieftain. In tribal Pashtun society the Maliks serve as de facto arbiters in local conflicts, interlocutors in state policy-making, tax-collectors, heads of village and town councils and delegates to provincial and national jirgas as well as to Parliament.

    Malik is a common surname among the Kakazai Pashtuns.

    Punjabi usage

    In the Punjab, "Malik", literally meaning "King" was one of the titles used by local aristocrats, more formally known as Zamindars, under both the Mughals and the British, and to some degree still in present-day Pakistan. Many such Rajput families and clans received the title of Malik from the Mughal Kings after they converted to Islam from Hinduism or Sikhism. The title is given for large amount of ownership of land(landlords). Implying it''s alternative meaning of "Chieftain". Currently, in Punjab region of Pakistan, Malik is mostly used by different Rajputs clans and Jatt clans to show their large land ownership. Whereas, in the yester-years, Malik was used to signify largest land ownership in the area.

    Among the Rajput, Maliks are a Suryavanshi clan, and are Dogras. The Hindu branch provided the Maharajas of Jammu and Kashmir. Prior to independence, the districts of Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur were home to a large number of Muslim Maliks. In what became Pakistani territory, they are found in numbers in Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum and Rawalpindi districts, which all bordered Jammu and Kashmir. Malik Hindu in what is now Pakistan converted into Islam, especially during and before independence while those in India retained their respective religions.

    The clans of Punjab that use the title of Malik include Tamman, Tiwana, Noon, Awan, Chattar, Pahore,Dharoee, Gathwal, Khokhar, Minhas, Janjua, Gunjial, Wattu, Haans, chandor, Langrial, Bandial, Bhatti, Johiya, attra,and Khukhrain. However, Awans, the most populous clan, have begun the use of Malik as a surname, in alternation of their "Awan" surname.

    General Usage

    Like many prestigious titles, Malik or Malek is a common element in first and family names, usually without any aristocratic meaning. For example,Gorrcha, Awan Malik is a large community in Pakistan with Arab heritage. Malik is used both as title and surname in Pakistan.

    Some Maliks (Urdu: ملک) are also a clan of Hindu Jatt, Muslim Jatt and a few Sikh Jatt, found primarily in Haryana and Pakistan and parts of Punjab (There also exist Hindu Punjabi Maliks that are part of the Khukhrain or Arora communities but they are entirely different from jats). The Hindu Malik Jat are spread all over Haryana. The Muslim Malik Jat community is settled all over Pakistan and Sikh, mainly in the Punjab province. The Malik are also known as the Ghatwala. They are descended from Mann Jats and have been ferocious warriors in history, earning them the name Malik(leader). The Gathwala are now designating themselves as Maliks, which is a title. There were Pakistanis with the title Malik residing in Pakistan before it was split into Pakistan and Bangladesh. The Maliks there are now scattered around both countries and are respected in certain areas.

    List of notable Maliks Other uses

    Malik is also an unrelated Greenlandic Inuit name meaning "wave."

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