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    * Livius *

    لیویوس


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    (Wikipedia) - Livia (gens)   (Redirected from Livius) For the Roman historian, see Livy.Livia Drusilla, wife of the emperor Augustus, whose father was adopted into the Livia gens from the Claudii, the clan of the renowned Appius Claudius.

    Gens Livia was a family of ancient Rome. All males individuals bore the nomen Livius while females were called Livia. Collectively they were termed the Livii (plural form). Both male and female names might be qualified by one or more agnomina. Males in addition had a praenomen. The family preferred Marcus, Gaius, Lucius or Titus.

    The Livii are known mainly from the Roman Republic. However, they must be much older as they descended into five branches designated by five agnomina: Denter, Drusus, Libo, Macatus and Salinator. The most famous were the Livii Drusi, who rose to imperial rank. Smith says (citing Suetonius) that the family was of plebeian origin, but was of great prominence in the Roman Republic, having been honoured with "eight consulships, two censorships, three triumphs, a dictatorship and a mastership of the horse."

    Contents

    Etymology

    The only words that look like Livy in the Latin dictionary are a set related to English livid: livere, "be blue"; livor, "blueness"; lividus, "blue", livesco, "grow blue" and so on. Accordingly it has been proposed that Livius and the Gallic name Livo mean "blue." This derivation had been taken so much for granted that biological nomenclaturists named the common pigeon Columba livia with a supposed meaning of "blue pigeon." The root would be Indo-European *sli-, "blue", in the stem *sli-wo-, with the *s- dropping away in only Celtic and Latin. there is also a Romanian name Liviu Associated with the name of livius

    There was not, however, a Latin adjective, *livius, "blue." The dictionaries now generally give livor as the source of neo-Latin livius. Moreover, lividus has a -d- too many and Livo has no -i-; that is, Livius does not fit the "blue" derivation. The linguist, Julius Pokorny, therefore hypothesizes "aber lat. Livius vielleicht etrusk.", "but Latin Livius is perhaps Etruscan. Certainly, no stories of any legendary men named blue exist.

    Family members known in history No or unknown agnomen Denter Drusus

    Livius Drusus was often shortened to just Drusus, especially if other agnomina were present, but technically all Drusi were Livii. During the early empire, Livia Drusilla started a Drusus line in the Claudii.

    Through a paternal line Through a maternal line
    This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (February 2011)
    Libo Macatus
    This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (February 2011)
    Salinator

    No story survives concerning how the Salinator branch got its name. The stem, sal-, means "salt", a valuable commodity often used as money. Salinae in general were salt-works but the Salinae district at the foot of the Aventine hill was probably the place where salt from Ostia was offloaded and sold. The salinator was a salt-merchant, but the word came to mean a money-dealer or banker (as salt was money). The Livii Salinatores may not have been named from that occupation; M. Livius Salinator, consul 207 BC, set a fixed price for the salt sold at Salinae, which did not endear him to the salinatores. There was, however, at least one more Salinator before him. Moreover, Salinator was not unique to the Livii; L. Oppius Salinator wore it, whether by marriage, adoption or independent assignment.

    Extensions of the name

    The town of Forlì in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, was called Forum Livii after Livius Salinator, who in legend founded the town.

    The given name still is used in Romanian as Liviu. In European languages, Livia is still an ordinary girl''s name.

    Notes
  • ^ Smith, William (1867). "Livia Gens". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 2. The Ancient Library. 
  • ^ Tiberius 3.
  • ^ Walde, Alois (1906). Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German). Heidelberg: Carl Winter''s Universitäts Büchhandlung. p. 346. 
  • ^ "(s)li". Indogermanisches Etymologisches Woerterbuch (in German). Leiden University. 1998–2003 . p. 965. 
  • ^ Livy, History of Rome, Book IX.8.
  • ^ Livy, History of Rome, XXI.18.
  • ^ Livy, History of Rome, XXIII.2.
  • ^ Livy, History of Rome, Book X.9.
  • ^ Graves, John Thomas (1890). "Drusus". In Smith, William. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology I. London: John Murray.  Graves cites Suetonius, Tiberius, 3.
  • ^ Smith, William, ed. (1890). "Drusus". A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Abaeus-Dysponteus. London: J.Murray. 
  • ^ Grandazzi, Alexandre (1997). The foundation of Rome: myth and history. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 86–87. "Salinae... does not refer to the salt fields, since the coastline is located nearly thirty kilometres away, but rather to a site for unloading, stocking and supplying the precious product." 
  • Tags:Augustus, Caesar, Carthage, Cornell, Cornell University, German, Greek, Hannibal, Italy, Livius, London, Roman, Romanus, Rome, Senate, Thomas, Tiberius, Wikipedia


    Website:http://www.livius.org



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