• Login/Register
  • Section: Person /Tuesday 14th October 2014

    Alphabetic Index : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    Search β):

    * Kartid *

    Kartid Dynasty,Kurts,Kartian Dynasty


    (Wikipedia) - Kurt dynasty   (Redirected from Kartid)
    Kurt dynasty
    The Kurt dynasty at its greatest extent
    Capital Herat
    Languages Persian
    Religion Sunni Islam
    Political structure Monarchy
     -  1245 Malik Rukn-uddin Abu Bakr (first)
     -  1370–1389 Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali (last)
    Historical era Middle Ages
     -  Foundation by Malik Rukn-uddin Abu Bakr 1244
     -  Disestablished 1381
    Today part of  Afghanistan  Iran  Turkmenistan
    History of Afghanistan
    Indus valley civilization 2200–1800 BC
    Oxus civilization 2100–1800 BC
    Aryans 1700–700 BC
    Medes 728–550 BC
    Achaemenids 550–330 BC
    Seleucids 330–150 BC
    Mauryans 305–180 BC
    Greco-Bactrians 256–125 BC
    Indo-Greeks 180–130 BC
    Indo-Scythians (Sakas) 155–80? BC
    Indo-Parthians 20 BC – 50? AD
    Kushans 135 BC – 248 AD
    Sasanians 230–651
    Kidarites 320–465
    Hephthalites 410–557
    Kabul Shahi 565–879
    Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries
    Rashidun Caliphate 652–661
    Umayyads 661–750
    Abbasids 750–821
    Tahirids 821–873
    Saffarids 863–900
    Samanids 875–999
    Ghaznavids 963–1187
    Ghurids before 879–1215
    Khwarezmids 1215–1231
    Ilkhanate 1258–1353
    Chagatai Khanate 1225–1370
    Khiljis 1290–1320
    Karts 1245–1381
    Timurids 1370–1506
    Arghuns 1479–1522
    Mughals 1501–1738
    Safavids 1510–1709
    Hotaki Empire 1709–1738
    Durrani Empire 1747–1826
    Emirate of Afghanistan 1826–1919
    Kingdom of Afghanistan 1919–1973
    Republic of Afghanistan 1973–1978
    Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 1978–1992
    Islamic State of Afghanistan 1992–2001
    Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2001
    Interim/Transitional Administration 2001–2004
    Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004
    • Book
    • Category
    • Portal
    • v
    • t
    • e
    History of Greater Iran Until the rise of modern nation-states Pre-modern
    Proto-Elamite civilization 3200–2800 BC
    Elamite dynasties 2800–550 BC
    Jiroft culture
    Bactria-Margiana Complex 2200–1700 BC
    Kingdom of Mannai 10th–7th century BC
    Median Empire 728–550 BC
    Scythian Kingdom 652–625 BC
    Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC
    Seleucid Empire 330–150 BC
    Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 250–125 BC
    Parthian Empire 248–BC 224
    Kushan Empire 30–275
    Sasanian Empire 224–651
    Afrighid dynasty 305–995
    Hephthalite Empire 425–557
    Kabul Shahi kingdom 565–879
    Dabuyid dynasty 642–760
    Alania 8th–9th century–1238/1239
    Patriarchal Caliphate 637–651
    Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
    Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
    Tahirid dynasty 821–873
    Zaydis of Tabaristan 864–928
    Saffarid dynasty 861–1003
    Samanid Empire 819–999
    Sajid dynasty 889/890–929
    Ziyarid dynasty 928–1043
    Buyid dynasty 934–1055
    Sallarid dynasty 941–1062
    Ghaznavid Empire 975–1187
    Ghurid dynasty before 879–1215
    Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
    Khwarazmian dynasty 1077–1231
    Ilkhanate 1256–353
    Kartids dynasty 1231–389
    Muzaffarid dynasty 1314–1393
    Chupanid dynasty 1337–1357
    Jalairid Sultanate 1339–1432
    Timurid Empire 1370–1506
    Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans 1407–1468
    Aq Qoyunlu Turcomans 1378–1508
    Safavid Empire 1501–1722
    Mughal Empire 1526–1857
    Hotaki Empire 1722–1729
    Afsharid dynasty 1736–1750
    Zand dynasty 1750–1794
    Durrani Empire 1794–1826
    Qajar dynasty 1794–1925
    • v
    • t
    • e

    The Kurt dynasty, also known as the Kartids was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Tajik origin, that ruled over a large part of Khorasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. Ruling from their capital at Herat (Afghanistan) and central Khorasan in the Bamyan, they were at first subordinates of Sultan Abul-Fateh Ghiyāṣ-ud-din Muhammad bin Sām, Sultan of the Ghurid Empire, of whom they were related, and then as vassal princes within the Mongol Empire. Upon the fragmentation of the Ilkhanate in 1335, Mu''izz-uddin Husayn ibn Ghiyath-uddin worked to expand his principality. The death of Husayn b. Ghiyath-uddin in 1370 and the invasion of Timur in 1381, ended the Kurt dynasty''s ambitions.


    Vassals of the Ghurid dynasty

    The Kurts trace their lineage to a Tajuddin Uthman Marghini, whose brother,''Izzuddin Umar Marghini, was the Vizier of Sultan Ghiyāṣ-ud-din Muhammad bin Sām (d.1202-3). The founder of the Kurt dynasty was Malik Rukn-uddin Abu Bakr, who was descended from the Shansabani family of Ghur.

    Malik Rukn-uddin Abu Bakr, married a Ghurid princess. Their son Shams-uddin succeeded his father in 1245.

    Vassals of the Mongol Empire

    Shams-uddin Muhammad succeeded his father in 1245, joined Sali Noyan in an invasion of India in the following year, and met the Sufi Saint Baha-ud-din Zakariya at Multan in 1247-8. Later he visited the Mongol ruler Möngke Khan(1248–1257) who placed under his sway Greater Khorasan (Afghanistan) and possibly region up to the Indus. In 1263-4, after having subdued Sistan, he visited Hulagu Khan, and three years later his successor Abaqa Khan, whom he accompanied in his campaign against Darband and Baku. He again visited Abaqa Khan, accompanied by Shams-uddin the Sahib Diwan, in 1276-7, and this time the former good opinion of the Mongol sovereign in respect to him seems to have been changed to suspicion, which led to his death, for he was poisoned in January 1278, by means of a water-melon given to him while he was in the bath at Tabriz. Abaqa Khan even caused his body to be buried in chains at Jam in Khorasan.

    Fakhr-uddin was a patron of literature, but also extremely religious. He had previously been cast in prison by his father for seven years, until the Ilkhanid general Nauruz intervened on his behalf. When Nauruz''s revolt faltered around 1296, Fakhr-uddin offered him asylum, but when an Ilkhanid force approached Herat, he betrayed the general and turned him over to the forces of Ghazan. Three years later, Fakhr-uddin fought against Ghazan''s successor Oljeitu, who shortly after his ascension in 1306 sent a force of 10,000 to take Herat. Fakhr-uddin, however, tricked the invaders by letting them occupy the city, and then destroying them, killing their commander Danishmand Bahadur in the process. He died on 26 February 1307. But Herat and Gilan were conquered by Oljeitu.

    Sham-suddin Muhammad was succeeded by his son Rukn-uddin. The latter adopted the title of Malik, which all succeeding Kurt rulers were to use. By the time of his death in Khaysar on 3 September 1305, effective power had long been in the hands of his son Fakhr-uddin.

    Fakhr-uddin''s brother Ghiyath-uddin succeeded him upon his death; almost immediately, he began to quarrel with another brother, Ala-uddin ibn Rukn-uddin. Taking his case before Oljeitu, who gave him a grand reception, he returned to Khurasan in 1307/8. Continuing troubles with his brother led him to visit the Ilkhan again in 1314/5. Upon returning to Herat, he found his territories being invaded by the Chagatai prince Yasa''ur, as well as hostility from Qutb-uddin of Isfizar and the populace of Sistan. A siege of Herat was set by Yasa''ur. The prince, however, was stopped by the armies of the Ilkhanate, and in August 1320, Ghiyath-uddin made a pilgrimage to Mecca, leaving his son Shams-uddin Muhammad ibn Ghiyath-uddin in control during his absence. In 1327 the Amir Chupan fled to Herat following his betrayal by the Ilkhan Abu Sa''id Bahadur Khan, where he requested asylum from Ghiyath-uddin, whom he was friends with. Ghiyath-uddin initially granted the request, but when Abu Sa''id pressured him to execute Chupan, he obeyed. Soon afterwards Ghiyath-uddin himself died, in 1329. He left four sons: Shams-uddin Muhammad ibn Ghiyath-uddin, Hafiz ibn Ghiyath-uddin, Mu''izz-uddin Husayn ibn Ghiyath-uddin, and Baqir ibn Ghiyath-uddin.

    Independent principality

    Four years after Mu''izz-uddin Husayn ibn Ghiyath-uddin''s ascension, the Ilkhan Abu Sa''id Bahadur Khan died, following which the Ilkhanate quickly fragmented. Mu''izz-uddin Husayn, for his part, allied with Togha Temür, a claimant to the Ilkhanid throne, and paid tribute to him. Up until his death, Mu''izz-uddin Husayn''s main concern were the neighboring Sarbadars, centered in Sabzavar. As the Sarbadars were the enemies of Togha Temür, they considered the Kurts a threat and invaded. When the Kurts and Sarbadars met in the Battle of Zava on 18 July 1342, the battle was initially in the favor of the latter, but disunity within the Sarbadar army allowed the Kurts to emerge victorious. Thereafter, Mu''izz-uddin Husayn undertook several successful campaigns against the Chagatai Mongols to the northeast. During this time, he took a still young Timur into his service. In 1349, while Togha Temür was still alive, Mu''izz-uddin Husayn stopped paying tribute to him, and ruled as an independent Sultan. Togha Temür''s murder in 1353 by the Sarbadars ended that potential threat. Sometime around 1358, however, the Chagatai amir Qazaghan invaded Khurasan and sacked Herat. As he was returning home, Qazaghan was assassinated, allowing Mu''izz-uddin Husayn to reestablish his authority. Another campaign by the Sarbadars against Mu''izz-uddin Husayn in 1362 was aborted due to their internal disunity. Shortly afterwards, the Kurt leader welcomed Shia dervishes fleeing from the Sarbadar ruler Ali-yi Mu''ayyad, who had killed their leader during the aborted campaign. In the meantime, however, relations with Timur became tense when the Kurts launched a raid into his territory. Upon Mu''izz-uddin Husayn''s death in 1370, his son Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali inherited most of the Kurt lands, except for Sarakhs and a portion of Quhistan, which Ghiyas-uddin''s stepbrother Malik Muhammad ibn Mu''izz-uddin gained.

    Vassals of the Timurids

    Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali, a grandson of Togha Temür through his mother Sultan Khatun, attempted to destabilize the Sarbadars by stirring up the refugee dervishes within his country. ''Ali-yi Mu''ayyad countered by conspiring with Malik Muhammad. When Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali attempted to remove Malik Muhammad, ''Ali-yi Mu''ayyad flanked his army and forced him to abort the campaign, instead compromising with his stepbrother. The Sarbadars, however, soon suffered a period of internal strife, and Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali took advantage of this by seizing the city of Nishapur around 1375 or 1376. In the meantime, both Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali and Malik Muhammad had asked for the assistance of Timur regarding their conflict: the former had sent an embassy to him, while the latter had appeared before Timur in person as a requester of asylum, having been driven out of Sarakhs. Timur responded to Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali by proposing a marriage between his niece Sevinj Qutluq Agha and the Kurt ruler''s son Pir Muhammad ibn Ghiyas-uddin, a marriage which took place in Samarkand around 1376. Later on, Timur invited Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali to a council, so that the latter could submit to him, but when the Kurt attempted to excuse himself from coming by claiming he had to deal with the Shia population in Nishapur, Timur decided to invade. He was encouraged by many Khurasanis, included Mu''izzu''d-Din''s former vizier Mu''in al-Din Jami, who sent a letter inviting Timur to intervene in Khurasan, and the shaikhs of Jam, who, being very influential persons, had convinced many of the Kurt dignitaries to welcome Timur as the latter neared Herat. In April 1381, Timur arrived before the city, whose citizens were already demoralized and also aware of Timur''s offer not to kill anyone that did not take part in the battle. The city fell, its fortifications were dismantled, theologians and scholars were deported to Timur''s homeland, a high tribute was enacted, and Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali and his son were carried off to Samarkand. Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali was made Timur''s vassal, until he supported a rebellion in 1382 by the maliks of Herat. Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali and his family were executed around 1383, and Timur''s son Miran Shah destroyed the revolt. That same year, a new uprising led by a Shaikh Da''ud-i Khitatai in Isfizar was quickly put down by Miran Shah. The remaining Kurts were murdered in 1396 at a banquet by Miran Shah. The Kurts therefore came to an end, having been the victims of Timur''s first Persian campaign.

    Rulers Titular Name Personal Name Reign Notes
    Malik Rukn-uddin Abu Bakr ?-1245
    Shams-uddin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr 1245-1277
    Malik ملک Shams-uddin -­i-Kihin Rukn-uddin ibn Sham-suddin Muhammad 1277–1295
    Malik ملک Fakhr-uddin ibn Rukn-uddin 1295–1308
    Malik ملک Ghiyath-uddin ibn Rukn-uddin 1308–1329
    Malik ملک Shams-uddin Muhammad ibn Ghiyath-uddin 1329-1330
    Malik ملک Hafiz ibn Ghiyath-uddin 1330–1332 Hafiz, a scholar and the next person to take the throne, was murdered after two years.
    Malik ملک Sultan سلطان Mu''izz-uddin Husayn ibn Ghiyath-uddin 1332–1370
    Malik ملک Sultan سلطان Ghiyas-uddin Pir ''Ali & Malik Muhammad ibn Mu''izz-uddin under whom were initially Sarakhs and a portion of Quhistan 1370–1389
    Conquest of Greater Khorasan and Afghanistan by Amir Timur Beg Gurkani.

    The colored rows signify the following;

  • ^ Farhad Daftary, The Ismāī̀līs: Their History and Doctrines, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 445.
  • ^ a b M.J. Gohari, Taliban: Ascent to Power, (Oxford University Press, 2000), 4.
  • ^ a b c C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 263.
  • ^ Edward G. Browne, A Literary History of Persia: Tartar Dominion 1265-1502, (Ibex Publishers, 1997), 174.
  • ^ Kart, T.W. Haig and B. Spuler, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. IV, ed. E. van Donzel, B. Lewis and C. Pellat, (Brill, 1997), 672.
  • ^ Vasiliĭ Vladimirovich Bartolʹd, Four Studies on the History of Central Asia, Vol.II, (Brill, 1958), 33.
  • Tags:Abbasid, Abbasid Caliphate, Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Afghanistan, Ala, Asia, Bactria, Baku, Bamyan, Beg, Caliphate, Cambridge, Cambridge University, Capital, Central Asia, Columbia, Columbia University, Dabuyid dynasty, Darband, Diwan, Dynasty, Elamite, Farhad, Ghazan, Gilan, Greater Iran, Greater Khorasan, Greco, Gurkani, Hafiz, Herat, Hotaki, Hulagu, Ilkhanate, India, Indus, Iran, Islam, Islamic, Islamic Republic, Jam, Jiroft, Kabul, Kartid, Khan, Khanate, Khatun, Khorasan, Margiana, Mecca, Medes, Middle Ages, Miran, Monarchy, Mongol, Mughal, Mughal Empire, Mughals, Muslim, Muzaffarid, Oxford, Oxford University Press, Oxus, Oxus civilization, Parthian, Parthian Empire, Persia, Persian, Prehistory, Proto-Elamite, Qajar, Rashidun, Safavid, Safavid Empire, Safavids, Saffarid, Samanid, Samarkand, Sarakhs, Sarbadar, Scythians, Seleucid, Shah, Shahi, Shia, Sistan, Sultan, Sunni, Tabriz, Tahirid, Taliban, Timeline, Timur, Timurid, Timurids, Turkmenistan, Umayyad, Wikipedia, Yasa, Zand

    Related History Articles:

    Add definition or comments on Kartid

    Your Name / Alias:
    Definition / Comments
    neutral points of view
    Source / SEO Backlink:
    Anti-Spam Check
    Enter text above
    Upon approval, your definition will be listed under: Kartid

    Happy Summer Sale

    Home About us / Contact    Products    Services    Iranian History Today    Top Iran Links    Iranian B2B Web Directory    Historical Glossary
    Copyright @ 2004-2016 fouman.com All Rights Iranian