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    * Jewish religious terrorism *

    تروریسم یهودی


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    (Wikipedia) - Jewish religious terrorism Terrorism
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    Jewish religious terrorism (Hebrew: טרור דתי יהודי) is a type of religious terrorism committed by extremists within Judaism motivated by religious rather than ethnic or nationalistic beliefs.

    Contents

    Terminology

    Some researchers on ethnic terrorism distinguish between ethnic terrorism and religious terrorism, but admit that the distinction between these forms of terrorism is often blurred in practice. Daniel Bymen, in his study on "The Logic of ethnic terrorism", argues that Jews operate far more as an ethnic group than as a community motivated by and organized according to religious doctrine. As good examples of Jewish terrorism based on ethnic, not religious grounds, or Zionist political violence, the author cites Jewish underground groups Irgun and Lehi, which operated against British law during the British Mandate of Palestine before the Israeli declaration of independence in 1948.

    Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi propaganda minister until 1945, often exaggerated the term Jewish terrorism in political rhetoric, portraying it as a serious world threat and as a pretext for the removal or "liquidation" of all Jews from Europe, particularly following Herschel Grynszpan''s 1938 assassination of a German diplomat.

    History Zealotry in the 1st century Main article: Zealotry in Jewish history

    According to Mark Burgess, the 1st century Jewish political and religious movement called Zealotry was one of the first examples of the use of terrorism by Jews. They sought to incite the people of Judaea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from Israel by force of arms. The term Zealot, in Hebrew kanai, means one who is zealous on behalf of God. The most extremist groups of Zealots were called Sicarii. Sicarii used violent stealth tactics against Romans. Under their cloaks they concealed sicae, or small daggers, from which they received their name. At popular assemblies, particularly during the pilgrimage to the Temple Mount, they stabbed their enemies (Romans or Roman sympathizers, Herodians), lamenting ostentatiously after the deed to blend into the crowd to escape detection. In one account, given in the Talmud, Sicarii destroyed the city''s food supply so that the people would be forced to fight against the Roman siege instead of negotiating peace. Sicarii also raided Jewish habitations and killed fellow Jews whom they considered apostates and collaborators.

    After the creation of Israel

    According to a study by the political scientist Noemi Gal-Or, since the creation of Israel, Jewish terrorism has been assessed as "far less significant" than Arab terrorism. It lasted a few years during the 1950s and was directed at internal Israeli-Jewish targets, not at the Israeli Arab population. There was then a long intermission until the 1980s, when the Jewish Underground was exposed.

    It has been suggested that a striking similarity between the Jewish groups, and jihad networks in Western democracies is their alienation and isolation from the values of the majority, mainstream culture, which they view as an existential threat to their own community. Other similarities between these groups are that their terrorist ideology is not exclusively religious, as it attempts to achieve political, territorial and nationalistic goals as well, e.g. the disruption of the Camp David accords. However, the newer of these Jewish groups have tended to emphasise religious motives for their actions at the expense of secular ones. In the case of Jewish terrorism most networks consist of religious Zionists and ultra-orthodox Jews living in isolated, homogenous communities.

    The following groups have been considered religious terrorist organizations in Israel:

    Individuals

    A number of violent acts by Jews have been described as terrorism and attributed to religious motivations:

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