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    * Jangal Movement of Gilan *

    نهضت جنگل گیلان

    (Wikipedia) - The Jangal (Jungle) movement, in Gilan, was a rebellion against the monarchist rule of the Qajar central government of Iran. It is considered as the extension of Constitutional Revolution of Iran and lasted from 1914 to 1921. Jangal movement of Gilan Mirza Kuchak Khan, the leader of the movement right before starting the Jangal movement.The Jangal (Jungle) movement, in Gilan, was a rebellion against the monarchist rule of the Qajar central government of Iran. It lasted from 1914 to 1921. Contents 1 History of the movement 1.1 Flag 2 Further analysis 3 Historical references 4 See also History of the movement In 1914 Mirzâ Kuçak Xân met in Tehran with other prominent figures of the Constitutional Revolution and helped organize a plan of reform for Iran, which called for the total independence of the nation, land and social reforms for the poor, and Islamic unity. Obstacles to this program included foreign imperialists, the landed elites, and tribal leaders. From the constitutionalist perspective, the Tehran government had by this time lost its independence and had fallen completely under the influence of the British and Russians. Kuchak Khan and the Jangalis then formally disavowed the central government and proclaimed their intention to free Iran from both the foreign influences and the domination of landed elites and tribal rulers. During the next few years, the Jangalis fought against the Russian and British forces that had threatened to advance towards Tehran from Gilan. They also waged campaigns against the tribes and robber bandits that threatened the security of the region. At this point, the Jangali movement was still fiercely committed to Iran, rather than pursuing Gilani nationalism which had not yet become an issue. However, after the Russian Revolution of 1917, foreign domination over the central government of Tehran was no longer as strong, and while the British continued to maintain a high level of influence over the Imperial Court, the government was now able to act more independently than before. Kouchak Khan and the Jangalis, as well as other constitutionalists and nationalists, saw this as an opportunity to join the central government and begin implementing their long-awaited democratic and social reforms. The Anglo-Persian Treaty of 1919, however, put an end to such an opportunity. The treaty was widely viewed by Iranians as having made the nation into nothing more than a British protectorate. Its chief negotiator, Prime Minister Vosough od-Dowleh, was seen as a servant of the British. Kouchak Khan thereafter made this announcement in response to the terms of the treaty:"My purpose and that of my friends is the independence of the state and the reforming and strengthening of the central government."Kuchak Khan made a public declaration that he was against the idea of separating Gilan from Iran, and that Gilan would return to the jurisdiction of the central government as soon as it rejected the treaty and reformed itself. This, however, did not happen, and antagonism towards Britain and the ruling elites of the Qajar Court who were subservient to their interests grew to unprecedented heights. In June 1919, the Bolsheviks officially ended the Anglo-Persian, Britain, British, Constitutional Revolution, Gilan, Iran, Islamic, Jangal Movement of Gilan, Khan, Mirza, Persian, Prime Minister, Qajar, Russian, Tehran, Wikipedia

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