• Login/Register
  • Alphabetic Index : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    Search β):

    * Jalalabad *

    جلال آباد


    Iranian_Flag_Hand_Love_Heart.jpg
    Jalalabad, formerly called Adinapur, as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. Located at the junction of the Kabul River and Kunar River near the Laghman valley, Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province. It is linked by approximately 153 km of highway with Kabul to the west. Jalalabad is the largest city in eastern Afghanistan as well as its social and business centre of activity. Major industries include papermaking, as well agricultural products including oranges, rice, and sugarcane. Jalalabad is one of the leading trading centers with neighboring Pakistan.In 630 Xuan Zang, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk visited Jalalabad. The city was a major center of Gandhara's Greco-Buddhist culture in the past until it was conquered by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century. However, not everyone converted to Islam at that period as some still refused to accept it. In a book called Hudud-al-Alam, written in 982 CE, it mentions a village near Jalalabad where the local king used to have many Hindu, Muslim and Afghan wives.The region became part of the Afghan Ghaznavid Empire in the 10th century, during the Indian invasions by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. Later, it was controlled by the successor Ghurids until the Mongols invaded the area. It then became part of the Teimurids.The modern city gained prominence during the reign of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire. Babur had chosen the site for this city and was built by his grandson Jalaloddin Mohammad Akbar in 1570. The original name of Jalalabad was Adinapur as mentioned here:In the following year 1505, Babar meditated an incursion into India and proceeded by Jalalabad (then called Adinapur) and the Khaibar Pass to PeshawarIn the last decade of the sixteenth century Adinapur was renamed to Jalalabad after the son of Pir Roshan, Jalala who was fighting the Mughals in the Waziristan area. It remained part of the Mughal Empire until around 1738 when Nader Shah and his Afsharid forces from Khorasan came to take over control. Nader Shah was accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani, a vassal of Persian Empire, who would re-conquer the area in 1747 after becoming the new ruler of the Afghans. He used the city while going back and forth during his nine military campaigns into India.The city was invaded by Ranjit Singh and his Sikh army in the early 19th century but was quickly chased out a few days later by Durrani forces. The British forces invaded Jalalabad in 1838, during the First Anglo-Persian Wars. The British supported their puppet king Shojaolmolk against the Qajar Dynasty but he was killed in a revolt in 1839. In the 1842 Battle of Jalalabad, Akbar Khan besieged the British troops on their way to Jalalabad. In 1841 the British deployed 16,500 more troops but they were defeated and on the way back were all killed in Jalalabad. Dost Mohammad Khan returned to power and fought with the British forces until a treaty was signed in Peshawar on March, 30, 1855, bringing Herat under British g (Wikipedia) - Jalalabad For other uses, see Jalalabad (disambiguation). Jalalabad جلال آباد Country Province Founded Elevation Population (2007)  • Total   Time zone
    From top left to right: A panoramic view of a section of Jalalabad; Jalalabad Bridge; Jalalabad Cricket Stadium; Pashtunistan Square; Mosque in Jalalabad; Governor''s House in Jalalabad; Building on a main road.
    JalalabadLocation in Afghanistan
    Coordinates: 34°26′03″N 70°26′52″E / 34.43417°N 70.44778°E / 34.43417; 70.44778Coordinates: 34°26′03″N 70°26′52″E / 34.43417°N 70.44778°E / 34.43417; 70.44778
    Afghanistan
    Nangarhar Province
    1570
    575 m (1,886 ft)
    205,423
    UTC+4:30

    Jalalabad (Pashto/Persian: جلال آباد Jalālābād), formerly called Adina Pur (Pushto:آدينه پور) as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. Located at the junction of the Kabul River and Kunar River near the Laghman valley, Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province. It is linked by approximately 95 miles (153 km) of highway with Kabul to the west. Jalalabad is the second-largest city in eastern Afghanistan as well as the centre of its social and business activity because of its border to Pakistan which is the main source of products to all Afghanistan. Major industries include papermaking, as well as agricultural products including oranges, rice and sugarcane. Jalalabad is one of the leading trading centres with neighbouring Pakistan.

    Contents

    History See also: History of Afghanistan

    Faxian visited and worshiped the sacred Buddhist sites such as of The Shadow of the Buddha in Nagarhara (modern Jalalabad). In 630 AD Xuan Zang, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Jalalabad and a number of other locations nearby. The city was a major center of Gandhara''s Greco-Buddhist culture in the past until it was conquered by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century. However, not everyone converted to Islam at that period as some still refused to accept it. In Hudud-al-Alam, written in 982 CE, there is reference to a village near Jalalabad where the local king used to have many Hindu, Muslim and Afghan wives.

    The region became part of the Afghan Ghaznavid Empire in the 10th century, during the Indian invasions by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznawee from Ghazni. Later, it was controlled by the successor Ghurids until the Mongols invaded the area. It then became part of the Timurids.

    The modern city gained prominence during the reign of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire. Babur had chosen the site for this city which was built by his grandson Jalal-uddin Mohammad Akbar in 1570.

    The original name of Jalalabad was Adinapur. It was renamed as Jalalabad in the last decade of the sixteenth century, in honour of the son of Pir Roshan, Jalala, who was fighting the Mughals in the Waziristan area. It remained part of the Mughal Empire until around 1738 when Persian king Nader Shah and his Afsharid forces from Khorasan came to take over control. Nader Shah was accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, who would re-conquer the area in 1747 after becoming the new ruler of the Afghans. He used the city while going back and forth during his nine military campaigns into India.

    The city was invaded by Ranjit Singh and his Sikh army in the early 19th century, but they were quickly chased out a few days later by Afghan forces of the Durrani Empire. The British forces invaded Jalalabad in 1838, during the First Anglo-Afghan War. In the 1842 Battle of Jellalabad, Akbar Khan besieged the British troops on their way to Jalalabad. In 1878, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again invaded and set up camps in Jalalabad but withdrew two years later.

    Jalalabad is considered one of the most important cities of the Pashtun culture. Seraj-ul-Emarat, the residence of Amir Habibullah and King Amanullah was destroyed in 1929 when Habibullah Kalakani rose to power; the other sanctuaries however, retain vestiges of the past. The mausoleum of both rulers is enclosed by a garden facing Seraj-ul-Emart.

    History of Afghanistan
    Timeline
    Ancient
    Indus valley civilization 2200–1800 BC
    Oxus civilization 2100–1800 BC
    Aryans 1700–700 BC
    Medes 728–550 BC
    Achaemenids 550–330 BC
    Seleucids 330–150 BC
    Mauryans 305–180 BC
    Greco-Bactrians 256–125 BC
    Indo-Greeks 180–130 BC
    Indo-Scythians (Sakas) 155–80? BC
    Indo-Parthians 20 BC – 50? AD
    Kushans 135 BC – 248 AD
    Sasanians 230–651
    Kidarites 320–465
    Hephthalites 410–557
    Medieval
    Kabul Shahi 565–879
    Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries
    Rashidun Caliphate 652–661
    Umayyads 661–750
    Abbasids 750–821
    Tahirids 821–873
    Saffarids 863–900
    Samanids 875–999
    Ghaznavids 963–1187
    Ghurids before 879–1215
    Khwarezmids 1215–1231
    Ilkhanate 1258–1353
    Chagatai Khanate 1225–1370
    Khiljis 1290–1320
    Karts 1245–1381
    Timurids 1370–1506
    Arghuns 1479–1522
    Mughals 1501–1738
    Safavids 1510–1709
    Modern
    Hotaki Empire 1709–1738
    Durrani Empire 1747–1826
    Emirate of Afghanistan 1826–1919
    Kingdom of Afghanistan 1919–1973
    Republic of Afghanistan 1973–1978
    Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 1978–1992
    Islamic State of Afghanistan 1992–2001
    Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2001
    Interim/Transitional Administration 2001–2004
    Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004
    • Book
    • Category
    • Portal
    • v
    • t
    • e

    From 1978 to early 1990s, the city served as a strategic location for the pro-Soviet Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. It fell to the Mujahideen in 1992 when they were on their way to capture Kabul. It was conquered by the Taliban and became part of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in the mid-1990s. During Operation Enduring Freedom after the September 11 attacks in the United States, the city was invaded and fell to US-backed Afghan forces.

    Since late 2001, the military of Afghanistan and the United States armed forces have established a number of bases, with the one at Jalalabad Airport being the largest. The Afghan National Police is in control of security while the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) also has a heavy presence in and around the city. In early 2011, the U.S. Embassy in Kabul announced that it plans to establish a consulate in Jalalabad. As is the case with other Afghan cities, occasional suicide attacks by militants have taken place in recent years.

    The Battle of Jellalabad in 1842 was an Afghan siege of the isolated British outpost at Jellalabad (now Jalalabad) about 80 miles (130 km) east of Kabul. The siege was lifted after five months when a British counterattack routed the Afghans, driving them back to Kabul. The outpost was no more than a wide place in the road with a fort, held by about 2,000 troops under General Sir Robert Sale. After the massacre of the British force during their retreat from Kabul in January 1842, Jellallabad was surrounded by Afghan forces which launched a series of attacks on the force. The British managed to beat off the assaults, and even captured 300 sheep from the besieging force when rations ran short. Eventually, after five months under siege, Sale mounted an attack against the Afghan forces, captured their main camp, baggage, stores, guns, and horses and the Afghans fled to Kabul. The defence of Jellalabad made heroes of the 13th Foot. It is reported that as the regiment marched back through India to return to Britain every garrison fired a ten-gun salute in its honour. Queen Victoria directed that the regiment be made Light Infantry, carry the additional title of "Prince Albert''s Own" and wear a badge depicting the walls of the town with the word “Jellalabad" visible.

    Demographics See also: Demographics of Afghanistan

    The population of the city is mostly Pashtun people, at 90%. Pashais are 7%. The remaining 3% are Tajiks, Punjabi Gujjars, Jats & (Sikhs/Hindus).

    Pashto is the main language of the city and is also used throughout the province. Many people in the city are also fluent in Dari. Although English is very little in use, it is now being taught in most schools.

    Nearly everyone in Jalalabad are Muslim, followers of Sunni Islam. The city is home to one of Afghanistan''s few Hindu temples, the Darga Hindu Temple on Chowk Omomi Street, founded by Darga Mathara Das in c. 1084 AD.

    Climate

    Jalalabad has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with very hot summers and cool winters. Precipitation is very low, and mostly falls in spring.

    Climate data for Jalalabad Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Daily mean °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Avg. rainy days  % humidity Mean monthly sunshine hours
    25.0 (77) 28.8 (83.8) 34.5 (94.1) 40.5 (104.9) 45.4 (113.7) 47.5 (117.5) 46.7 (116.1) 48.4 (119.1) 44.2 (111.6) 38.2 (100.8) 32.4 (90.3) 25.4 (77.7) 48.4 (119.1)
    15.9 (60.6) 17.9 (64.2) 22.5 (72.5) 28.3 (82.9) 34.7 (94.5) 40.4 (104.7) 39.3 (102.7) 38.0 (100.4) 35.2 (95.4) 30.5 (86.9) 23.3 (73.9) 17.5 (63.5) 28.63 (83.52)
    8.5 (47.3) 10.9 (51.6) 16.3 (61.3) 21.9 (71.4) 27.7 (81.9) 32.7 (90.9) 32.8 (91) 31.9 (89.4) 28.1 (82.6) 22.2 (72) 14.9 (58.8) 9.5 (49.1) 21.45 (70.61)
    2.9 (37.2) 5.6 (42.1) 10.5 (50.9) 15.3 (59.5) 19.8 (67.6) 24.7 (76.5) 26.7 (80.1) 26.2 (79.2) 21.4 (70.5) 14.4 (57.9) 6.9 (44.4) 3.5 (38.3) 14.83 (58.68)
    −4.1 (24.6) −3.5 (25.7) 1.0 (33.8) 6.1 (43) 10.6 (51.1) 13.5 (56.3) 19.0 (66.2) 17.5 (63.5) 11.0 (51.8) 2.7 (36.9) −4.5 (23.9) −5.5 (22.1) −5.5 (22.1)
    18.1 (0.713) 24.3 (0.957) 39.2 (1.543) 36.4 (1.433) 16.0 (0.63) 1.4 (0.055) 6.9 (0.272) 7.7 (0.303) 8.3 (0.327) 3.2 (0.126) 8.3 (0.327) 12.1 (0.476) 181.9 (7.162)
    4 5 8 8 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 39
    61 60 62 59 47 40 52 58 56 55 58 63 55.9
    180.9 182.7 207.1 227.8 304.8 339.6 325.9 299.7 293.6 277.6 231.0 185.6 3,056.3
    Source: NOAA (1964-1983)
    Transportation See also: Transport in AfghanistanAn Afghan Air Force Mi-17 helicopter comes in for a landing at Jalalabad Airport in October 2011.

    The Jalalabad Airport was built for dual-use, civilian and military. It is designed to serve the population of Nangarhar Province and neighboring province for domestic flights. The airport is currently used by NATO-led forces, including the Afghan Air Force, and houses large number of ISAF forces. The airport is also used as one of the launching and monitoring spots of drone attacks in Pakistan.

    There are proposals for the establishment of Afghanistan''s rail network linking Jalalabad with Pakistan Railways, allowing for increased trade of goods, people and commerce between the two countries.

    Jalalabad is connected by main roads with the Afghan capital of Kabul, the city of Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and several nearby Afghan cities and towns. All trade between Afghanistan and Pakistan passes through this city. The highway between Jalalabad and Kabul was resurfaced in 2006, reducing the transit time between these two important cities. This highway is considered to be one of the most dangerous in the world because of the large number of accidents. An improvement in the road networks between Jalalabad and Peshawar has also been proposed, with the intention of widening the existing road and improving security to attract more tourists and allow for safer passage of goods between to the two countries.

    Places of interestSherzai Cricket Stadium (under construction)Mausoleum of King Amanullah Khan

    Jalalabad is considered one of the most beautiful cities of Afghanistan. It has plenty of greenery and water. About 15 Kilometers from Jalalabad, a new city called Ghazi Amanullah Khan City is under development. Named after King Amanullah Khan, it is said to be the first, the biggest and the most modern city in the history of Afghanistan.

    Jalalabad is considered the capital of Afghan cricket, with many of the national players coming from the surrounding areas. Construction has begun near the city on one of Afghanistan''s cricket stadiums. It is hoped that this ground will serve the domestic competition and attract international teams.

    Jalalabad Airport (IATA: JAA, ICAO: OAJL) is located 3 miles (4.8 km) southeast of Jalalabad city in Afghanistan. This airport is currently being used only for military purposes and sometimes the United Nations'' aircraft use this airport. It is occupied and maintained by the United States Armed Forces. They operate out of Forward Operating Base Fenty, which is adjacent to Jalalabad Airport. The Afghan Air Force (AAF) and members of the International Security Assistance Force also use the airport.

    New Jalalabad Airport

    Hamidullah Qaderi, Minister of Transport and Civil Aviation of Afghanistan, announced in April 2009 the construction of a new civilian airport in the Gambiri area northwest of Jalalabad. The new airport will be constructed with financial assistance from the United States.

    The province is represented in domestic cricket competitions by the Nangarhar province cricket team. National team member Hamid Hasan was born in the province and he currently represents Afghanistan in international cricket. The Ghazi Amanullah Khan International Cricket Stadium is the first international standard cricket stadium in Afghanistan. It is located in the Ghazi Amanullah Khan Township, about 15 kilometres outside the city of Jalalabad in Nangarhar Province. Construction on the stadium began in March 2010 when the foundation stone was laid by Minister of Finance and president of the Afghanistan Cricket Board, Omar Zakhilwal. The project, which was developed on 30 acres of land donated by the developer constructing the Ghazi Amanullah Khan Township, cost up the first phase of construction $1.8 million. The first phase, which took one year to complete, included the completion of the stadium itself. The remainder of the phases will see the construction of a pavilion, accommodation for players and administrative buildings. The stadium, which has a capacity of 14,000, was completed before the national team and under-19 team left for Canada and the Under-19 Cricket World Cup Qualifier in Ireland respectively. The two sides inaugurated the stadium in a Twenty20 match. It is hoped that the stadium will be able to attract international teams to play Afghanistan, who currently have One Day International status until at least 2013.

    Jalalabad district has three big hospitals: Fatumatu Zahra, Medical Hospital of Nangarhar, and the General Hospital of Public Health. The General Hospital of Public Health is one of the largest in the country. As of July 24, 2004, polio (NSL3) has been identified and reported in the Jalalabad district area. This specific case has been linked to others reported in the past due to the highly transient and mobile population.

    Nangarhar University (Pashto: د ننګرهار پوهنتون) is a government-funded higher learning institution in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. It is the second largest university in Afghanistan. It has approximately 25 faculty and 3,500 students. Nangarhar University was established in 1962 as a medical college. It was later merged with other local colleges to become a full-fledged university. It now houses faculties in agriculture, engineering, education, medicine, theology, pedagogy, political science and veterinary medicine.

    Nangarhar consists of many faculties including engineering, political science, economics, teachers'' training, veterinary, and computer science. Nangarhar Medical Faculty (NMF) is the second largest medical school in Afghanistan. They also take part in an e-learning program organized by Afghans Next Generation e-Learning.

    The nearest village within walking distance of Jalalabad is Ghouchak.

    Sister cities

    San Diego, California, USA

    Tags:Afghan, Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Alam, Anglo-Persian, Armed, Babur, Britain, British, Buddha, California, Caliphate, Canada, Chinese, Demographics, Dost Mohammad Khan, Dynasty, Gandhara, Governor, Greco, Herat, Hospital, Hotaki, ICAO, ISAF, Ilkhanate, India, Indus, Ireland, Islam, Islamic, Islamic Republic, Jalalabad, Jalaloddin, Kabul, Khan, Khanate, Khorasan, Medes, Minister of Finance, Mughal, Mughal Empire, Mughals, Muslim, NATO, Nader Shah, Nangarhar, Nangarhar Province, Nations, Oxus, Oxus civilization, Pakistan, Pashtun, Persian, Persian Empire, Peshawar, Qajar, Rashidun, Safavids, San Diego, Scythians, September 11, Shah, Shahi, Shojaolmolk, Soviet, Sultan, Sunni, Taliban, Timeline, Timurids, U.S. Embassy, US, USA, United Nations, United States, Wikipedia, World Cup


    Related History Articles:

    Failed to connect to MySQL 1: Access denied for user 'foumanu'@'localhost' (using password: YES)