• Login/Register
  • Section: Import-Export /Monday 13th October 2014

    Alphabetic Index : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    Search β):

    * Incoterms *

    اینكوترمز


    Iranian_Flag_Hand_Love_Heart.jpg
    INCOTERMS Language is one of the most complex and important tools of International Trade. As in any complex and sophisticated business, small changes in wording can have a major impact on all aspects of a business agreement. Word definitions often differ from industry to industry. This is especially true of global trade. Where such fundamental phrases as "delivery" can have a far different meaning in the business than in the rest of the world. For business terminology to be effective, phrases must mean the same thing throughout the industry. That is why the International Chamber of Commerce created "INCOTERMS" in 1936. INCOTERMS are designed to create a bridge between different members of the industry by acting as a uniform language they can use. Each INCOTERM refers to a type of agreement for the purchase and shipping of goods internationally. There are 11 different terms, each of which helps users deal with different situations involving the movement of goods. For example, the term FCA is often used with shipments involving Ro/Ro or container transport. INCOTERMS also deal with the documentation required for global trade, specifying which parties are responsible for which documents. Determining the paperwork required to move a shipment is an important job, since requirements vary so much between countries. Two items, however, are standard: the commercial invoice and the packing list. INCOTERMS were created primarily for people inside the world of global trade. Outsiders frequently find them difficult to understand. Seemingly common words such as "responsibility" and "delivery" have different meanings in global trade than they do in other situations. In global trade, "delivery" refers to the seller fulfilling the obligation of the terms of sale or to completing a contractual obligation. "Delivery" can occur while the merchandise is on a vessel on the high seas and the parties involved are thousands of miles from the goods. In the end, however, the terms wind up boiling down to a few basic specifics: Costs: who is responsible for the expenses involved in a shipment at a given point in the shipment's journey? Control: who owns the goods at a given point in the journey? Liability: who is responsible for paying damage to goods at a given point in a shipment's transit? It is essential for shippers to know the exact status of their shipments in terms of ownership and responsibility. It is also vital for sellers & buyers to arrange insurance on their goods while the goods are in their "legal" possession. Lack of insurance can result in wasted time, lawsuits, and broken relationships. INCOTERMS can thus have a direct financial impact on a company's business. What is important is not the acronyms, but the business results. Often companies like to be in control of their freight. That being the case, sellers of goods might choose to sell CIF, which gives them a good grasp of shipments moving out of their country, and buyers may prefer to purchase FOB, which gives them a tighter hold on goods moving into their country. In this glossary, we'll tell you what terms such as CIF and FOB mean and their impact on the trade process. In addition, since we realize that most international buyers and sellers do not handle goods themselves, but work through customs brokers and freight forwarders, we'll discuss how both fit into the terms under discussion. INCOTERMS are most frequently listed by category. Terms beginning with F refer to shipments where the primary cost of shipping is not paid for by the seller. Terms beginning with C deal with shipments where the seller pays for shipping. E-terms occur when a seller's responsibilities are fulfilled when goods are ready to depart from their facilities. D terms cover shipments where the shipper/seller's responsibility ends when the goods arrive at some specific point. Because shipments are moving into a country, D terms usually involve the services of a customs broker and a freight forwarder. In addition, D terms also deal with the pier or docking charges found at virtually all ports and determining who is responsible for each charge. Recently the ICC changed basic aspects of the definitions of a number of INCOTERMS, buyers and sellers should be aware of this. Terms that have changed have a star alongside them. EXW (EX-Works) One of the simplest and most basic shipment arrangements places the minimum responsibility on the seller with greater responsibility on the buyer. In an EX-Works transaction, goods are basically made available for pickup at the shipper/seller's factory or warehouse and "delivery" is accomplished when the merchandise is released to the consignee's freight forwarder. The buyer is responsible for making arrangements with their forwarder for insurance, export clearance and handling all other paperwork. FOB (Free On Board) One of the most commonly used-and misused-terms, FOB means that the shipper/seller uses his freight forwarder to move the merchandise to the port or designated point of origin. Though frequently used to describe inland movement of cargo, FOB specifically refers to ocean or inland waterway transportation of goods. "Delivery" is accomplished when the shipper/seller releases the goods to the buyer's forwarder. The buyer's responsibility for insurance and transportation begins at the same moment. FCA (Free Carrier) In this type of transaction, the seller is responsible for arranging transportation, but he is acting at the risk and the expense of the buyer. Where in FOB the freight forwarder or carrier is the choice of the buyer, in FCA the seller chooses and works with the freight forwarder or the carrier. "Delivery" is accomplished at a predetermined port or destination point and the buyer is responsible for Insurance. FAS (Free Alongside Ship)* In these transactions, the buyer bears all the transportation costs and the risk of loss of goods. FAS requires the shipper/seller to clear goods for export, which is a reversal from past practices. Companies selling on these terms will ordinarily use their freight forwarder to clear the goods for export. "Delivery" is accomplished when the goods are turned over to the Buyers Forwarder for insurance and transportation. CFR (Cost and Freight) This term formerly known as CNF (C&F) defines two distinct and separate responsibilities-one is dealing with the actual cost of merchandise "C" and the other "F" refers to the freight charges to a predetermined destination point. It is the shipper/seller's responsibility to get goods from their door to the port of destination. "Delivery" is accomplished at this time. It is the buyer's responsibility to cover insurance from the port of origin or port of shipment to buyer's door. Given that the shipper is responsible for transportation, the shipper also chooses the forwarder. CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) This arrangement similar to CFR, but instead of the buyer insuring the goods for the maritime phase of the voyage, the shipper/seller will insure the merchandise. In this arrangement, the seller usually chooses the forwarder. "Delivery" as above, is accomplished at the port of destination. CPT (Carriage Paid To) In CPT transactions the shipper/seller has the same obligations found with CIF, with the addition that the seller has to buy cargo insurance, naming the buyer as the insured while the goods are in transit. CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To) This term is primarily used for multimodal transport. Because it relies on the carrier's insurance, the shipper/seller is only required to purchase minimum coverage. When this particular agreement is in force, Freight Forwarders often act in effect, as carriers. The buyer's insurance is effective when the goods are turned over to the Forwarder. DAT (Delivered At Terminal) This term is used for any type of shipments. The shipper/seller pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal. DAP (Delivered At Place) DAP term is used for any type of shipments. The shipper/seller pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer. DDP (Delivered Duty Paid) DDP term tend to be used in intermodal or courier-type shipments. Whereby, the shipper/seller is responsible for dealing with all the tasks involved in moving goods from the manufacturing plant to the buyer/consignee's door. It is the shipper/seller's responsibility to insure the goods and absorb all costs and risks including the payment of duty and fees. Incoterms® are a set of rules which define the responsibilities of sellers and buyers for the delivery of goods under sales contracts. They are published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and are widely used in commercial transactions. What are Incoterms®? The Incoterms rules are accepted by governments, legal authorities, and practitioners worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. They are intended to reduce or remove altogether uncertainties arising from different interpretation of the rules in different countries. As such they are regularly incorporated into sales contracts worldwide. First published in 1936, the Incoterms rules have been periodically updated, with the eighth version— Incoterms® 2010 '—having been published on January 1, 2011. "Incoterms" is a registered trademark of the ICC. The term, Incoterms®, is an abbreviation for International Commercial Terms. They are a set of rules which define the responsibilities of sellers and buyers for the delivery of goods under sales contracts for domestic and international trade. They are published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and are widely used in international commercial transactions. The first Incoterms® were issued in 1936. The most recent version of Incoterms®, Incoterms® 2010, were launched in September 2010 and became effective January 1, 2011. What are Incoterms® used for? Incoterms® provide a common set of rules to clarify responsibilities of sellers and buyers for the delivery of goods under sales contracts. They apportion transportation costs and responsibilities associated with the delivery of goods between buyers (importers) and sellers (exporters) and reflect modern-day transportation practices. Incoterms® significantly reduce misunderstandings among traders and thereby minimize trade disputes and litigation. Why were the Incoterms® 2000 revised? Incoterms® 2010 are the updated version of Incoterms®. Incoterms® 2010 have been developed as a result of an extensive review of current shipping practices and trends in an effort to keep up with the rapid expansion of world trade. The key drivers for this update include: a need for improved cargo security, changes to the Uniform Commercial Code in 2004 that resulted in a deletion of U.S. shipment and delivery terms, and new trends in global transportation. What are the Incoterms® 2010? The two main categories of Incoterms® 2010 are now organized by modes of transport. Used in international as well as in domestic contracts for the first time, the new groups aim to simplify the drafting of contracts and help avoid misunderstandings by clearly stipulating the obligations of buyers and sellers. Group 1. Incoterms® that apply to any mode of transport are: EXW Ex Works FCA Free Carrier CPT Carriage Paid To CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid To DAT Delivered at Terminal DAP Delivered at Place DDP Delivered Duty Paid Group 2. Incoterms® that apply to sea and inland waterway transport only: FAS Free Alongside Ship FOB Free on Board CFR Cost and Freight CIF Cost, Insurance, and Freight View Incoterms® 2010 with Definitions For a comprehensive discussion of Incoterms® and their use, watch our free webinar. Can I still use the Incoterms® 2000? According to the International Chamber of Commerce, all contracts made under Incoterms® 2000 remain valid even after 2011. In addition, although the ICC recommends using Incoterms® 2010 from January 2011 onward, parties to a sales contract can agree to use any version of Incoterms® after 2011. It is important, however, to clearly specify the chosen version of Incoterms® being used (i.e. Incoterms® 2010, Incoterms® 2000, or any earlier version). (Wikipedia) - Incoterms

    The Incoterms rules or International Commercial Terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) that are widely used in International commercial transactions or procurement processes. A series of three-letter trade terms related to common contractual sales practices, the Incoterms rules are intended primarily to clearly communicate the tasks, costs, and risks associated with the transportation and delivery of goods.

    The Incoterms rules are accepted by governments, legal authorities, and practitioners worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. They are intended to reduce or remove altogether uncertainties arising from different interpretation of the rules in different countries. As such they are regularly incorporated into sales contracts worldwide.

    First published in 1936, the Incoterms rules have been periodically updated, with the eighth version— Incoterms® 2010 ''—having been published on January 1, 2011. "Incoterms" is a registered trademark of the ICC.

    National Incoterms chambers.

    Contents

    Incoterms 2010

    The eighth published set of pre-defined terms, Incoterms 2010 defines 11 rules, reducing the 13 used in Incoterms 2000 by introducing two new rules ("Delivered at Terminal", DAT; "Delivered at Place", DAP) that replace four rules of the prior version ("Delivered at Frontier", DAF; "Delivered Ex Ship", DES; "Delivered Ex Quay", DEQ; "Delivered Duty Unpaid", DDU). In the prior version, the rules were divided into four categories, but the 11 pre-defined terms of Incoterms 2010 are subdivided into two categories based only on method of delivery. The larger group of seven rules applies regardless of the method of transport, with the smaller group of four being applicable only to sales that solely involve transportation by water.

    General Transport EXW – Ex Works (named place)

    The seller makes the goods available at his/her premises. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the sale of goods without any costs included. EXW means that a buyer incurs the risks for bringing the goods to their final destination. The seller does not load the goods on collecting vehicles and does not clear them for export. If the seller does load the goods, he does so at buyer''s risk and cost. If parties wish seller to be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risk and all costs of such loading, this must be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.

    The buyer arranges the pickup of the freight from the supplier''s designated ship site, owns the in-transit freight, and is responsible for clearing the goods through Customs. The buyer is responsible for completing all the export documentation. Cost of goods sold transfers from the seller to the buyer.

    FCA - Free Carrier (named place of delivery)

    The seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goods at that place. If delivery occurs at the seller''s premises, the seller is responsible for loading. If delivery occurs at any other place, the seller is not responsible for loading.

    If the buyer nominates a person other than a carrier to receive the goods, the seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods when they are delivered to that person.

    CPT – Carriage Paid To (named place of destination)

    The seller pays for carriage. Risk transfers to buyer upon handing goods over to the first carrier at place of shipment in the country of Export. The Shipper is responsible for origin costs including export clearance and freight costs for carriage to named place (usually destination port or airport). Shipper is not responsible for buying Insurance and for delivery to final destination (buyer''s facilities).

    This term is used for all kind of shipments.

    CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination)

    The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrier. CIP is used for intermodal deliveries & CIF is used for Sea.

    DAT – Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination)

    This term means that the seller covers all the costs of transport (export fees, carriage, unloading from main carrier at destination port and destination port charges) and assumes all risk until destination port, import duty/taxes/customs costs to be borne by Buyer.

    DAP – Delivered at Place (named place of destination)

    Can be used for any transport mode, or where there is more than one transport mode. The seller is responsible for arranging carriage and for delivering the goods, ready for unloading from the arriving conveyance, at the named place. Duties are not paid by the seller under this term (an important difference from Delivered At Terminal DAT, where the buyer is responsible for unloading).

    DDP – Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)

    Seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the named place in the country of the buyer, and pays all costs in bringing the goods to the destination including import duties and taxes. The seller is not responsible for unloading. This term is often used in place of the non-Incoterm "Free In Store (FIS)". This term places the maximum obligations on the seller and minimum obligations on the buyer. With the delivery at the named place of destination all the risks and responsibilities are transferred to the buyer and it is considered that the seller has completed his obligations

    Sea and Inland Waterway Transport

    To determine if a location qualifies for these four rules, please refer to ''United Nations Code for Trade and Transport Locations (UN/LOCODE)''.

    The four rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where transportation is entirely conducted by water are as per the below. It is important to note that these terms are generally not suitable for shipments in shipping containers; the point at which risk and responsibility for the goods passes is when the goods are loaded on board the ship, and if the goods are sealed into a shipping container it is impossible to verify the condition of the goods at this point.

    FAS – Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment)

    The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the buyer''s vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export, which is a reversal from previous Incoterms versions that required the buyer to arrange for export clearance. However, if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport.

    FOB – Free on Board (named port of shipment) See also: FOB (Shipping)

    The seller must advance government tax in the country of origin as of commitment to load the goods on board a vessel designated by the buyer. Cost and risk are divided when the goods are sea transport in containers (see Incoterms 2010, ICC publication 715). The seller must instruct the buyer the details of the vessel and the port where the goods are to be loaded, and there is no reference to, or provision for, the use of a carrier or forwarder. This term has been greatly misused over the last three decades ever since Incoterms 1980 explained that FCA should be used for container shipments.

    It means the seller pays for transportation of goods to the port of shipment, loading cost. The buyer pays cost of marine freight transportation, insurance, unloading and transportation cost from the arrival port to destination. The passing of risk occurs when the goods are in buyer account. The buyer arranges for the vessel and the shipper has to load the goods and the named vessel at the named port of shipment with the dates stipulated in the contract of sale as informed by the buyer.

    CFR – Cost and Freight (named port of destination)

    Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel. Insurance for the goods is NOT included. and This term is formerly known as CNF (C&F, C+F or CF).

    CIF – Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)

    Exactly the same as CFR except that the seller must in addition procure and pay for the insurance.

    Allocations of costs to buyer/seller according to Incoterms 2010
    Incoterm 2010 Export customs declaration Carriage to port of export Unloading of truck in port of export Loading on vessel in port of export Carriage (Sea/Air) to port of import Insurance Unloading in port of import Loading on truck in port of import Carriage to place of destination Import customs clearance Import taxes
    EXW Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    FCA Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    FAS Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    FOB Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    CPT Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    CFR(CNF) Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    CIF Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    CIP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer/Seller Buyer/Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer
    DAT Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    DAP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
    DDP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller/Not including VAT/FAT
    Previous terms from Incoterms 2000 eliminated from Incoterms 2010 DAF – Delivered at Frontier (named place of delivery)

    This term can be used when the goods are transported by rail and road. The seller pays for transportation to the named place of delivery at the frontier. The buyer arranges for customs clearance and pays for transportation from the frontier to his factory. The passing of risk occurs at the frontier.

    DES – Delivered Ex Ship

    Where goods are delivered ex ship, the passing of risk does not occur until the ship has arrived at the named port of destination and the goods made available for unloading to the buyer. The seller pays the same freight and insurance costs as he would under a CIF arrangement. Unlike CFR and CIF terms, the seller has agreed to bear not just cost, but also Risk and Title up to the arrival of the vessel at the named port. Costs for unloading the goods and any duties, taxes, etc. are for the Buyer. A commonly used term in shipping bulk commodities, such as coal, grain, dry chemicals; and where the seller either owns or has chartered, their own vessel.

    DEQ – Delivered Ex Quay (named port of delivery)

    This is similar to DES, but the passing of risk does not occur until the goods have been unloaded at the port of discharge.

    DDU – Delivered Duty Unpaid (named place of destination)

    This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer to the named place of destination in the contract of sale. A transaction in international trade where the seller is responsible for making a safe delivery of goods to a named destination, paying all transportation expenses but not the duty. The seller bears the risks and costs associated with supplying the goods to the delivery location, where the buyer becomes responsible for paying the duty and other customs clearing expenses.

    Tags:Customs, Ex Works, Export, Free Alongside Ship, Free Carrier, Free On Board, Import, Incoterms, Nations, United Nations, Wikipedia


    Failed to connect to MySQL 1: Access denied for user 'foumanu'@'localhost' (using password: YES)