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    * Ibn Arabi *

    ابن عربی ، محمّد بن علی بن محمّد بن احمد بن عبدالله بن حاتم طائی، محی الدین ابن عربی، شیخ اکبر


    Iranian_Flag_Hand_Love_Heart.jpg
    (Wikipedia) - Ibn Arabi For the Maliki scholar, see Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi.
    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2011)
    Born Died Era School Main interests Influences Influenced
    Sunday, 25 July 1165 Murcia, Taifa of Murcia
    Thursday, 8 November 1240 District of Ṣāliḥiyya at Jabal Qāsiyūn, Damascus-Ayyubid dynasty
    Islamic golden age
    Sufism
    Mysticism, Sufi metaphysics, Poetry
     
    • Mohammed ibn Qasim al-Tamimi
     
    • Sadr al-Din Qunawi
    Ibn ''Arabī Greatest Master, Seal of Mohammedan Sainthood Born Died Honored in
    c. 1165 AD Murcia, Taifa of Murcia
    c. 1240 AD District of Ṣāliḥiyya at Jabal Qāsiyūn, Damascus-Ayyubid dynasty
    Islam

    Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibn al-ʿArabī al-Ḥātimī aṭ-Ṭāʾī (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن محمد بن العربي الحاتمي الطائي‎) ‎(25 July 1165 – 8 November 1240) was an Arab Andalusian Sufi mystic and philosopher.

    He is renowned by some practitioners of Sufism as "the greatest master" and also as a genuine saint.

    Contents

    Biography Sufism and Tariqa
    Ideas
    • Abdal
    • Baqaa
    • Dervish
    • Dhawq
    • Fakir
    • Fanaa
    • Haal
    • Keramat
    • Haqiqa
    • Ihsan
    • Irfan
    • Kashf
    • Lataif
    • Manzil
    • Marifa
    • Nafs
    • Noor
    • Qalandar
    • Qutb
    • Silsila
    • Sufi cosmology
    • Sufi metaphysics
    • Sufi philosophy
    • Sufi poetry
    • Sufi psychology
    • Sulook
    • Tazkiah
    • Wali
    • Yaqeen
    Practices
    • Anasheed
    • Dhikr
    • Haḍra
    • Muraqaba
    • Qawwali
    • Sama
    • Whirling
    • Ziyarat
    Sufi orders
    • Akbarī
    • Alevī
    • Alians
    • Ashrafia
    • Azeemia
    • Ba ''Alawī
    • Bayramī
    • Bektashī
    • Burhāniyya
    • Chishtī
    • Galibī
    • Gulshanī
    • Ḥurūfī
    • Idrīsī
    • Jelvetī
    • Jerrahī
    • Khalidī
    • Khalwatī
    • Kubrāwī
    • Madarī
    • Malāmatī
    • Mawlāwī
    • Mourīdī
    • Noorbakshia
    • Naqshbandī
    • Naqshbandi Uwaisī
    • Nasuhī
    • Ni''matullāhī
    • Nuqtawī
    • Qadirī
    • Qalāndārī
    • Rifa''ī
    • Safāvī
    • Shadhilī
    • Shattārī
    • Suhrawardī
    • Sunbulī
    • Tijanī
    • Ussakī
    • Uwaisī
    • Zahedī
    Notable early Sufis
    • Abdūl-Khāliq Ghujdawanī
    • Abdullah Ansari
    • Abdūl-Qādir Gilanī
    • Abūl-Khāyr
    • ad-Dağhestānī
    • Abu Bakr al-Aydarus al-Adeni
    • Afaq Khoja
    • Ahmad Ghazālī
    • Ahmed Yasavī
    • al-Ajami
    • al-Badawi
    • Al-Basri
    • Al-Fozail
    • Al-Ghazālī
    • Al-Hallaj
    • Ali-Shir Nava''i
    • al-Khārāqānī
    • Al-Qāsim
    • al-Qayṣarī
    • al-Qunawī
    • Amīr Kulal
    • Ardabilī
    • Ata Allah
    • Attar
    • Balım Sultan
    • Baba Fakruddin
    • Baha ūd-Dīn Naqshband
    • Bande Nawāz
    • Baqī Billah
    • Bayazid Bastamī
    • Bhita''ī
    • Bulleh Shah
    • Dehlāvī
    • El-Desoukî
    • Arbili
    • Erzurumī
    • Farīd ūd-Dīn
    • Fuzûlî
    • Gharīb Nawāz
    • Ghulam Farīd
    • Gül Baba
    • Hajji Bayram
    • Hajji Bektash
    • Hāfez-e Shīrāzī
    • Halidī Bağdādī
    • Haddad
    • Hamadānī
    • Hansvī
    • Harabatī Baba
    • Harooni
    • Hujwirī
    • ibn Adham
    • ibn ʿArabī
    • Iraqi
    • Jābir ibn Hayyān
    • Ja''far al-Sadiq
    • Jahangasht
    • Jamī
    • Jan-e-Jānāān
    • Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani
    • Mir Sham ud-Din Iraqi
    • Karkhī
    • Magtymguly Pyragy
    • Jazoulī
    • Muhammad al-Faqih Muqaddam
    • Jilī
    • Junayd Baġdādī
    • Kākī
    • Kaliyarī
    • Omar Khayyam
    • Khusrow
    • Kubrā
    • Mahmud Hüdayī
    • Nāimī
    • Najib al-Suhrawardī
    • Nasir Khusraw
    • Nasīmī
    • Nasreddin Hoca
    • Nathar Vali
    • Ni''matullāh Wali
    • Nizām ūd-Dīn
    • Noorbaksh Qahistani
    • Nurī
    • Otman Baba
    • Pir Sultan
    • Qutb ūd-Dīn Haydār
    • Qutb ūd-Dīn Shīrāzī
    • Rabbānī
    • Rabia Basri
    • Razī
    • Rifa''ī
    • Rukn-e-Alam
    • Rūmī
    • Saadī
    • Sabakhī
    • Salman al-Farisī
    • Sanai
    • Sarı Saltuk
    • Sheik Edebali
    • Semnanī
    • Silistrevī
    • Shadhilī
    • Shah Waliullah
    • Shahāb al-Dīn Suhrawardī
    • Shams Tabrizī
    • Shaykh Gālib
    • Shiblī
    • Sultan Walad
    • Surkh Bukharī
    • Taj al-Dīn Gilanī
    • Umar al-Suhrawardī
    • Sahl al-Tustari
    • Yunus Emre
    • Zakariya
    • Zarruq
    • Zū''l-Nūn al-Misrī
    Notable modern Sufis
    • Abdūl-Khāqeem Arvāsī
    • Abdal Hakīm Murad
    • Abdalqadir as-Sufi
    • Ahmet Kayhan Dede
    • Ahmad al-Alawi
    • al-Shaghouri
    • Qalandar Baba Auliya
    • Khwaja Shamsuddin Azeemi
    • Baba Rexheb
    • Bawa Muhaiyaddeen
    • Feisal Abdul Rauf
    • Fethullah Gülen
    • Gohar Shahi
    • Kuşçuoğlu
    • Ghulam Mustafa
    • Hisham Kabbani
    • Hüseyin Hilmi Işık
    • Mai Safoora
    • Meher Ali
    • Muhammad Malikī
    • Nazīm Al-Haqqānī
    • Syed Muhammad Shah Noorani
    • Syed Waheed Ashraf
    • Nuh Keller
    • Nooruddeen Durkee
    • Omar Shah
    • Osman Nuri Topbaş
    • Qadeer Piya
    • Reshad Feild
    • Saheb Qibla Fultali
    • Said al-Chirkawi
    • Said Nursī
    • Shahab
    • Sufi Barkat Ali
    • Syed Shujaat
    • Kabir Helminski
    • Tahir Allauddin
    • Tajuddin Babaī
    • Waris Ali Shah
    • Zaheen
    • Abdullah al-Harari
    Topics in Sufism
    • Tawhid
    • Shariah
    • Haqiqah
    • Art
    • History
    • Music
    • Poetry
    • Shrines
    • Texts
    Portal
    • v
    • t
    • e

    ''Abū ''Abdillāh Muḥammad ibn ''Alī ibn Muḥammad ibn `Arabī (أبو عبد الله محمد ابن علي ابن محمد ابن عربي ) was born in Murcia, Taifa of Murcia on Sunday, 17th of Ramaḍān 560 AH (25 July 1165 AD) at night. He went by the names al-Shaykh al-Akbar, Muḥyiddin ibn Arabi, and was also later nicknamed the Great Shaykh.

    Youth

    His father, ‘Ali ibn Muḥammad, served in the Army of ibn Mardanīsh. When ibn Mardanīsh died in 1172 AD, ‘Ali ibn Muḥammad swiftly shifted his allegiance to the Almohad Sultan, Abū Ya’qūb Yūsuf I, and became one of his military advisers. His family then relocated from Murcia to Seville. His mother came from a wealthy Berber family with strong ties to northern Africa.

    Education

    Ibn ‘Arabī’s intellectual training began in Seville in 578 AH. Most of his teachers were the clergy of the Almohad era and some of them held the official posts of Qadi or Khatib.

    His spiritual mentor in Fes was Mohammed ibn Qasim al-Tamimi.

    In the year 597 AH/1200 AD, he was in Morocco and took his final leave from his master Yūsuf al-Kūmī, who was living in the village of Salé at that time.

    Mediaeval list of Ibn Arabi''s booksPilgrim at Mecca

    Ibn Arabi undertook Hajj in 598 AH. He lived in Mecca for three years. It was in Mecca that he started writing the very best of his works Al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya.

    Journeys to the North

    After spending time in Mecca, he traveled throughout Syria, Palestine, Iraq and Turkey.

    The year 600 AH witnessed a meeting between Ibn Arabi and Shaykh Majduddīn Isḥāq ibn Yūsuf, a native of Malatya and a man of great standing at the Seljuk court. This time Ibn ‘Arabī was travelling north; first they visited Medina and in 601 AH they entered Baghdad. This visit besides other benefits offered him a chance to meet the direct disciples of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qādir Jīlānī. Ibn Arabi stayed there only for 12 days because he wanted to visit Mosul to see his friend ‘Alī ibn ‘Abdallāh ibn Jāmi’, a disciple of Qaḍīb al-Bān. There he spent the month of Ramaḍan and composed Tanazzulāt al-Mawṣiliyya, Kitāb al-Jalāl wa’l-Jamāl and Kunh mā lā Budda lil-MurīdMinhu (Hirtenstein 176).

    Return to South
    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2014)

    In the year 602 AH he visited Jerusalem, Mecca and Egypt. It was his first time that he passed through Syria, visiting Aleppo and Damascus.

    Later in 604 AH he returned to Mecca where he continued to study and write, spending his time with his friend Abū Shujā bin Rustem and family, including the beautiful Niẓām (II, 376; Hirtenstein 181). The next 4 to 5 years of Ibn ‘Arabī’s life were spent in these lands and he also kept travelling and holding the reading sessions of his works in his own presence.

    The Futūḥāt al-MakkiyyaDiagram of "Plain of Assembly"(Ard al-Hashr) on the Day of Judgment, from autograph manuscript of Futuhat al-Makkiyya, ca. 1238 (photo: after Futuhat al-Makkiyya, Cairo edition, 1911).
    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2014)

    In 629 AH the first draft of al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya was completed. Hundreds of manuscripts of this work exist in various libraries of the world, the most important of them being the manuscript of Konya, written by its author.

    Three years later in 632 AH, on the first of Muḥarram, Ibn ‘Arabī embarked on a second draft of the Futūḥāt; this he explained, included a number of additions and a number of deletions as compared with the previous draft. This revision completed in the year 636 (Addas 286). After completion of this 2nd draft, he started teaching it to his disciples. Dr. Osman Yahia has mentioned hundreds of these hearings or public readings that occur between the year 633 AH and 638 AH.

    Death

    On 22 Rabī‘ al-Thānī 638 AH at the age of seventy-five, Ibn ‘Arabī died in Damascus.

    Islamic law

    Although Ibn Arabi stated on more than one occasion that he did not prefer any one of the schools of Islamic jurisprudence, he was responsible for copying and preserving books of the Zahirite or literalist school, to which he has been ironically and erroneously ascribed. Ibn Arabi shared Ghazali''s views that Islamic law was only a temporary means to a higher goal, eschewing the heavy focus on worldly matters such as financial transactions and regulations regarding clothing.

    Ibn Arabi did delve into specific details at times, and was known for his view that religiously binding consensus could only serve as a source of sacred law if it was the consensus of the first generation of Muslims who had witnessed generation directly.

    Reaction

    Muslim scholars have often held strong, polarized views regarding the viewpoints and character of Ibn Arabi. Many have declared Ibn Arabi to be the foremost spiritual leader and Sufi master in Muslim history. Others regarded him as a heretic or even an apostate. Very few have had neutral or lukewarm reactions.

    The reaction of Ibn ''Abd as-Salam, a Muslim scholar respected by both Ibn Arabi''s supporters and detractors, has been of note due to disputes over whether he himself was a supporter or detractor. All parties have claimed to have transmitted Ibn ''Abd as-Salam''s comments from his student Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, yet the two sides have transmitted very different accounts. Ibn Taymiyyah, Al-Dhahabi and Ibn Kathir all transmitted Ibn ''Abd as-Salam''s comments as a criticism, while Fairuzabadi, Al-Suyuti, Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari and Yusuf an-Nabhani have all transmitted the comments as praise.

    Works

    Some 800 works are attributed to Ibn Arabi, although only some have been authenticated. Recent research suggests that over 100 of his works have survived in manuscript form, although most printed versions have not yet been critically edited and include many errors.

    Urdu Translation of al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya

    The first successful attempt at translating al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya was made by Muhammad Fazal Khan Changwi (1868–1938), who started publishing his translation in 1913 in installments of 100 pages each, which had to be stopped in 1927 due to lack of funds. By then 18 Parts which comprise 30 Chapters had been published. The second impression of this translation is available as Futuhat Makkiyya. Urdu Tarjuma Jild Awwal. Tasnif-i latif Shaikh-i Akbar Muhyi al-Din ibn Arabi. Tarjuma wa sharah: Maulavi Muhammad Fazal Khan (Died 1357 (Hijri)/ 1938). Lahore: Tasawwuf Foundation. 1999. 694 Pages; The second volume of this translation was published in 2013 under the title: Futuhat-i Makkiyya. Part 2. From Parah 18 to Parah 27 (Bab 30 to Bab 63). (Translated by) Maulavi Muhammad Fazal Khan and Muniruddin Ahmed. Fazli Books. Kummerfeld. Germany. 412 Pages.

    Commentaries and translations of Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam

    There have been many commentaries on Ibn ''Arabī''s Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam: the first, al-Fukūk, was written by his stepson and heir, Ṣadr al-Dīn al-Qunawī, who had studied the book with Ibn ''Arabī; the second by Qunawī''s student, Mu''ayyad al-Dīn al-Jandī, which was the first line-by-line commentary; the third by Jandī''s student, Dawūd al-Qaysarī, which became very influential in the Persian-speaking world. There were many others, in the Ottoman world (e.g. ''Abdullah al-Bosnawī), the Arab world (e.g. ''Abd al-Ghanī al-Nabulusī) and the Persian world (e.g. Haydar Āmolī). It is estimated that there are over fifty commentaries on the Fuṣūṣ, most of which only exist in manuscript form. The more famous (such as Qunawī''s Fukūk) have been printed in recent years in Iran. A recent English translation of Ibn ''Arabī''s own summary of the Fuṣūṣ, Naqsh al-Fuṣūṣ (The Imprint or Pattern of the Fusus) as well a commentary on this work by ''Abd al-Raḥmān Jāmī, Naqd al-Nuṣūṣ fī Sharḥ Naqsh al-Fuṣūṣ (1459), by William Chittick was published in Volume 1 of the Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn ''Arabi Society (1982).

    The Fuṣūṣ was first critically edited in Arabic by ''Afīfī (1946). The first English translation was done in partial form by Angela Culme-Seymour from the French translation of Titus Burckhardt as Wisdom of the Prophets (1975), and the first full translation was by Ralph Austin as Bezels of Wisdom (1980). There is also a complete French translation by Charles-Andre Gilis, entitled Le livre des chatons des sagesses (1997). The only major commentary to have been translated into English so far is entitled Ismail Hakki Bursevi''s translation and commentary on Fusus al-hikam by Muhyiddin Ibn ''Arabi, translated from Ottoman Turkish by Bulent Rauf in 4 volumes (1985–1991).

    In Urdu, the most widespread and authentic translation was made by Bahr-ul-uloom Hazrat Muhammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqi Qadri Hasrat, the former Dean and Professor of Theology of the Osmania University, Hyderabad. It is due to this reason that his translation is in the curriculum of Punjab University. Maulvi Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui has made an interpretive translation and explained the terms and grammar while clarifying the Shaikh''s opinions.

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