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    مرال ، بزکوهی


    Achaemenid_Rhyton.jpg
    Ibex is a species of wild goat (Wikipedia) - Capra (genus)   (Redirected from Ibex) "Ibex" redirects here. For other uses, see Ibex (disambiguation). Capra Temporal range: 2.6–0MaPreЄ Є O S D C P T J K Pg N↓Pleistocene - Recent Scientific classification Species
    Female and male Siberian ibex at the Berlin Zoological Garden
    Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
    Class: Mammalia
    Order: Artiodactyla
    Family: Bovidae
    Subfamily: Caprinae
    Genus: Capra Linnaeus, 1758

    See text.

    Approximate range of the Capra species

    Capra is a genus of mammals, the goats or wild goats, composed of up to nine species, including the wild goat, the markhor, and several species known as ibex.

    The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a domesticated subspecies of the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Evidence of goat domestication dates back more than 8,500 years.

    Wild goats are animals of mountain habitats. They are very agile and hardy, able to climb on bare rock and survive on sparse vegetation. They can be distinguished from the genus Ovis, which includes sheep, by the presence of scent glands close to the feet, in the groin, and in front of the eyes, and the absence of other facial glands, and by the presence of a beard in the males, and of hairless calluses on the knees of the forelegs.

    The Rocky Mountain goat is in a separate genus, Oreamnos.

    Contents

    TaxonomyMale Nubian ibex

    All members of the Capra genus are bovids (members of the family Bovidae) and caprids (subfamily Caprinae). All these are ruminants, meaning they chew the cud, and have four-chambered stomachs which play a vital role in digesting, regurgitating, and redigesting their food.

    The genus has sometimes been taken to include Ovis (sheep) and Ammotragus (Barbary sheep), but these are usually regarded as distinct genera, leaving Capra for goats and ibexes. In this smaller genus, some authors have recognized only two species, the markhor on one side and all other forms included in one species on the other side. Today, nine species are usually accepted:

    The goats of the genus Capra have complex systematic relationships, which are still not completely resolved. Recent studies based on mitochondrial DNA suggest the Siberian ibex and the Nubian ibex represent distinct species, which are not very closely related to the physically similar Alpine ibex. The Alpine ibex forms a group with the Spanish ibex. The West Caucasian tur appears to be more closely related to the wild goat than to the East Caucasian tur. The markhor is relatively little separated from other forms—previously it had been considered to be a separate branch of the genus.

    Almost all wild goat species are allopatric (geographically separated)—the only geographical overlaps are the wild goat (Capra hircus) with the East Caucasian tur (Capra caucasica cylindricornis), and the markhor (Capra falconeri) with the Siberian ibex (Capra siberica). In both cases, the overlapping species do not usually interbreed in the wild, but in captivity, all Capra species can interbreed, producing fertile offspring.

    Species and subspecies of goats
    Capra caucasica West Caucasian tur
    Capra cylindricornis East Caucasian tur
    Capra falconeri Markhor
    Capra aegagrus Wild goat
    Capra (aegagrus) hircus Domestic goat
    Capra sibirica Siberian ibex
    Capra pyrenaica Spanish ibex
    Capra walie Walia ibex
    Capra ibex Alpine ibex
    Capra nubiana Nubian ibex
    Domestication and uses Main article: Domestic goatGoats used for natural weed control

    Along with sheep, goats were among the first domesticated animals. The domestication process started at least 10,000 years ago in what is now northern Iran. Easy human access to goat hair, meat, and milk were the primary motivations. Goat skins were popularly used until the Middle Ages for water and wine bottles when traveling and camping, and in certain regions as parchment for writing.

    In ancient historyCapra in Andalusia

    Evidence of the ibex is widely present in the archaeological record, particularly in the Near East and Mediterranean regions. Ibex motifs are very common on cylinder seals and pottery, both painted and embossed. Excavations from Minoan Crete at Knossos, for example, have yielded specimens from about 1800 BC, including one cylinder seal depicting an ibex defending itself from a hunting dog. From the similar age a gold jewelry ibex image was found at the Akrotiri archaeological site on Santorini in present day Greece.

    An Iron Age Capra ibex specimen was recovered at the Aq Kupruk archaeological site in present day Afghanistan, illustrating either domestication or hunting of the ibex by these early peoples. However, archaeological records of ibex can be difficult to separate from those of domestic goats.

    Associations in history

    It has been proven, after much historical dispute, that rock carvings and the horns of ibex were once used as a charm to encourage childbearing or to give thanks for a child by those who were involved in the Buddhist religion around the periods of 1000 BC to 300 AD. As commented on by historian and archaeologist, A. H. Francke:

    Our Christian evangelist at Khalatse had become a father a few weeks before, and the people of the village had made presents of "flour-ibex" to him and his wife. He gave me one of those figures, which are made of flour and butter, and told me that it was a custom in Tibet and Ladakh, to make presents of "flour-ibex" on the occasion of the birth of a child. This is quite interesting information. I had often wondered why there were so many rock carvings of ibex at places connected with the pre-Buddhist religion of Ladakh. Now it appears probable that they are thank offerings after the birth of children. As I have tried to show in my previous article, people used to go to the pre-Buddhist places of worship, in particular, to pray to be blessed with children.

    Tags:Afghanistan, Alpine, Berlin, Caucasian, Christian, DNA, Greece, Iran, Mediterranean, Middle Ages, Near East, Tibet, Wikipedia


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