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    * ISAF *

    آی اس ای اِف


    Iranian_Flag_Hand_Love_Heart.jpg
    (Wikipedia) - International Security Assistance Force   (Redirected from ISAF) "ISAF" redirects here. For the sailing body, see International Sailing Federation. For other uses, see ISAF (disambiguation). "Coalition Forces" redirects here. For the Persian Gulf War body, see Coalition of the Gulf War. International Security Assistance Force Active Country Allegiance Part of Headquarters Motto Engagements Commanders Commander Deputy Commander Chief of Staff
    Official emblem (top) and flags (middle and bottom) of the International Security Assistance Force.
    December 2001–present
    See Contributing nations
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization

    Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum Brunssum, Netherlands

    American contingent responsible to: United States Central Command MacDill AFB, Florida, U.S.
    Kabul, Afghanistan
    "Assistance and Cooperation" Persian: کمک و همکاری‎ Kumak u Hamkāri Pashto: کمک او همکاري‎ Kumak aw Hamkāri
    War in Afghanistan
    Gen. John F. Campbell, United States Army
    Lt Gen. John Lorimer DSO MBE, British Army
    Lt Gen. Kenan Hüsnüoğlu, Turkish Army

    The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) is a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan that was established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement. Its main purpose is to train the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and assist Afghanistan in rebuilding key government institutions but is also engaged in the 2001–present war with insurgent groups.

    ISAF was initially charged with securing Kabul and surrounding areas from the Taliban, al Qaeda and factional warlords, so as to allow for the establishment of the Afghan Transitional Administration headed by Hamid Karzai. In October 2003, the UN Security Council authorized the expansion of the ISAF mission throughout Afghanistan, and ISAF subsequently expanded the mission in four main stages over the whole of the country. From 2006 to 2011, ISAF had been involved in increasingly more intensive combat operations in southern and eastern Afghanistan.

    Troop contributors include from the United States, United Kingdom, NATO member states and a number of other countries. The intensity of the combat faced by contributing nations varies greatly, with the United States sustaining the largest numbers of casualties in intensive combat operations, but with other contributors, especially the United Kingdom, Canada, and Denmark, sustaining relatively higher rates of casualties. As of early 2010, there were at least 700 military bases inside Afghanistan. About 400 of these were used by American‑led NATO forces and 300 by ANSF.

    Contents

    JurisdictionISAF''s military terminal at Kabul International Airport in September 2010.

    For almost two years, the ISAF mandate did not go beyond the boundaries of Kabul. According to General Norbert Van Heyst, such a deployment would require at least an extra ten thousand soldiers. The responsibility for security throughout the whole of Afghanistan was to be given to the newly reconstituted Afghan armed forces. However, on 13 October 2003, the Security Council voted unanimously to expand the ISAF mission beyond Kabul in Resolution 1510. Shortly thereafter, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien said that Canadian soldiers (nearly half of the entire force at that time) would not deploy outside Kabul.

    On 24 October 2003, the German Bundestag voted to send German troops to the region of Kunduz. Approximately 230 additional soldiers were deployed to that region, marking the first time that ISAF soldiers operated outside of Kabul. After the 2005 Afghan parliamentary election, the Canadian base Camp Julien at Kabul closed, and remaining Canadian assets moved to Kandahar as part of Operation Enduring Freedom in preparation for a significant deployment in January 2006. On 31 July 2006, the NATO‑led International Security Assistance Force assumed command of the south of the country, ISAF Stage 3, and by 5 October also of the east of Afghanistan, ISAF Stage 9.

    ISAF is mandated by the UN Security Council Resolutions 1386, 1413, 1444, 1510, 1563, 1623, S/RES/1659 {{{date}}}., S/RES/1707 {{{date}}}., S/RES/1776(2007) {{{date}}}. (with an abstention from Russia due to the lack of clarity in the wording pertaining to ISAF''s maritime interception component, which has not appeared in any of the Security Council''s previous resolutions.) and Resolution 1917 (2010). The last of these extended the mandate of ISAF to 23 March 2011.

    This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (February 2013)

    The mandates the different governments give to their forces differ from country to country. Some governments wish to take a full part in counter-insurgency operations; some are in Afghanistan for NATO alliance reasons; some are in the country partially because they wish to maintain their relationship with the United States, and possibly, some are there for domestic political reasons. This means that ISAF suffers from a certain lack of united aims.

    History
    This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this article to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (September 2009)
    Geographic depiction of the four ISAF stages (January 2009).

    The initial ISAF headquarters (AISAF) was based on 3rd UK Mechanised Division, led at the time by Major General John McColl. This force arrived in December 2001. Until ISAF expanded beyond Kabul, the force consisted of a roughly division-level headquarters and one brigade covering the capital, the Kabul Multinational Brigade. The brigade was composed of three battle groups, and was in charge of the tactical command of deployed troops. ISAF headquarters serves as the operational control center of the mission.

    ISAF command originally rotated among different nations on a 6‑month basis. However, there was tremendous difficulty securing new lead nations. To solve the problem, command was turned over indefinitely to NATO on 11 August 2003. This marked NATO''s first deployment outside Europe or North America.

    Stage 1: to the north – completed October 2004 Stage 2: to the west – completed September 2005 Stage 3: to the south – completed July 2006 Further information: Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2006 Stage 4: ISAF takes responsibility for entire country – completed October 2006 ISAF Post Stage 4: October 2006 to presentAnaconda Strategy vs the insurgents as of 2010-10-20.SOF 90‑Day Accumulated effect (23 Sep 10).

    Colombia had planned to deploy around 100 soldiers in Spring 2009. These forces were expected to be demining experts. General Freddy Padilla de Leon announced to CBS that operators of Colombia''s Special Forces Brigade were scheduled to be deployed to Afghanistan in either August or September 2009. However, the Colombians are not listed as part of the force as of June 2011.

    Three NATO states have announced withdrawal plans: Canada in 2011, Poland in 2012, and the United Kingdom in 2015. The United States said it would end combat operations in Afghanistan by the end of 2014. This would not involve a total withdrawal, but sizable advisory forces may remain to train and mentor Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF).

    Security and reconstruction Further information: War in Afghanistan (2001–present) and Timeline of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

    Since 2006 the insurgency of the Taliban has been intensifying, especially in the southern Pashtun parts of the country, areas that were the Taliban''s original power base in the mid‑1990s. ISAF took over command of the south on 31 July 2006, British, Dutch, Canadian and Danish ISAF soldiers in the provinces of Helmand, Uruzgan, and Kandahar have come under almost daily attack. British commanders said the fighting for them was the fiercest since the Korean War, fifty years ago. BBC reporter Alistair Leithead, embedded with the British forces, called it in an article "Deployed to Afghanistan''s hell".

    Because of the security situation in the south, ISAF commanders have asked member countries to send more troops. On 19 October, for example, the Dutch government decided to send more troops, because of the increasing attacks by suspected Taliban on their Task Force Uruzgan, which makes it very difficult to complete the reconstruction work they came to accomplish. Derogatory alternative acronyms for the ISAF were created by critics, including "I Saw Americans Fighting", "I Suck at Fighting", and "In Sandals and Flip Flops".

    ISAF and the illegal opium economyOpium production levels for 2005–2007Regional security risks of opium poppy cultivation in 2007–2008.

    Prior to October 2008, ISAF had only served an indirect role in fighting the illegal opium economy in Afghanistan through shared intelligence with the Afghan government, protection of Afghan poppy crop eradication units and helping in the coordination and the implementation of the country''s counternarcotics policy. For example, Dutch soldiers have used military force to protect eradication units that came under attack.

    Crop eradication often affects the poorest farmers who have no economic alternatives on which to fall back. Without alternatives, these farmers can no longer feed their families, causing anger, frustration, and social protest. Thus, being associated with this counterproductive drug policy, ISAF soldiers on the ground find it difficult to gain the support of the local population.

    Though problematic for NATO, this indirect role has allowed NATO to avoid the opposition of the local population who depend on the poppy fields for their livelihood. In October 2008 NATO altered its position in an effort to curb the financing of insurgency by the Taliban. Drug laboratories, and drug traders became the targets, and not the poppy fields themselves. In order to appease France, Italy, and Germany, the deal involved the participation in an anti-drugs campaign only of willing NATO member countries, was to be temporary, and was to involve cooperation of the Afghans.

    On 10 October 2008, during a news conference, after an informal meeting of NATO Defence Ministers in Budapest, Hungary, NATO Spokesman James Appathurai said:

    ...with regard to counternarcotics, based on the request of the Afghan government, consistent with the appropriate UN Security Council Resolutions, under the existing operational plan, ISAF can act in concert with the Afghans against facilities and facilitators supporting the insurgency, subject to the authorization of respective nations.... The idea of a review is, indeed, envisioned for an upcoming meeting.

    Military and civilian casualties
    This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2012)
    Main articles: Coalition casualties in Afghanistan and Civilian casualties of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

    ISAF military casualties, and the civilian casualties caused by the war and Coalition/ISAF friendly fire, have become a major political issue, both in Afghanistan and in the troop contributing nations. Increasing civilian casualties threaten the stability of President Hamid Karzai''s government. Consequently, effective 2 July 2009, coalition air and ground combat operations were ordered to take steps to minimize Afghan civilian casualties in accordance with a tactical directive issued by General Stanley A. McChrystal, USA, the commander of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. Another issue over the years has been a large number of ''insider'' attacks involving Afghan soldiers opening fire on ISAF soldiers. While these have been diminishing, in part due to the planned ending of combat operations on 31 December 2014, they have continued, albeit at less frequency. On 5 August 2014, a gunman believed to have been an Afghan soldier opened fire on a number of international soldiers, killing a U.S. general and wounding about 15 officers and soldiers, including a German brigadier general and several U.S. soldiers, at a training academy near Kabul.

    ISAF command structure as of 2011 See also: Afghan War order of battleISAF troops under NATO command (April 2009).

    Throughout the four different regional stages of ISAF the number of Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) began growing. The expansion of ISAF, during October 2006, to all provinces of the country brought the total number of PRTs to twenty-four (24). The teams are led by different members of ISAF mission. PRT at Wardak was installed in November 2006, which is led by Turkey. This brought the number to 25. The overall NATO-ISAF mission is led by the Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum, at Brunssum, Netherlands.

    The headquarters of ISAF is located in Kabul. As of October 2010, there were 6 Regional Commands, each with subordinate Task Forces and Provincial Reconstruction Teams:

    The lower strength numbers of the ISAF forces are as of 6 October 2008. The numbers also reflect the situation in the country. The north and west are relatively calm, while ISAF and Afghan forces in the south and east are almost under daily attack.

    Kabul; Clock wise, Michael Mullen, David Petraeus, James Mattis, John Allen, Marvin L. Hill and German Army Gen. Wolf Langheld inside the ISAF headquarters in Kabul.

    Afghan Defense Ministry spokesman, Zahir Azimi, with German Army Brig. Gen. Josef Blotz in 2010.Camp Marmal in Mazar-i-Sharif, headquarters of Regional Command North.Meeting of Italian and U.S. commanders at Regional Command West headquarters in Herat.Tarin Kowt in Urozgan ProvinceInside the Air traffic control tower at Bagram Airfield in Parwan ProvinceCamp Leatherneck in Helmand Province, part of Regional Command Southwest List of Commanders

    The command of ISAF has rotated between officers of the participating nations. The first American took command in February 2007 and only Americans have commanded ISAF since that time.

    Name Photo Term began Term ended Notes
    1. Lt Gen John C. McColl, BA 10 January 2002 20 June 2002
    2. Lt Gen Hilmi Akin Zorlu, TKK 20 June 2002 10 February 2003
    3. Lt Gen Norbert van Heyst, DH 10 February 2003 11 August 2003
    4. Lt Gen Götz Gliemeroth, DH 11 August 2003 9 February 2004
    5. Lt Gen Rick J. Hillier, CF 9 February 2004 9 August 2004
    6. Lt Gen Jean-Louis Py, AT 9 August 2004 13 February 2005
    7. Lt Gen Ethem Erdağı, TKK 13 February 2005 5 August 2005 Former commander of 3rd Corps (Turkey)
    8. Gen Mauro del Vecchio, EI 5 August 2005 4 May 2006
    9. Gen Sir David J. Richards, BA 4 May 2006 4 February 2007
    10. GEN Dan K. McNeill, USA 4 February 2007 3 June 2008
    11. GEN David D. McKiernan, USA 3 June 2008 15 June 2009 Relieved from command by Secretary of Defense Robert Gates.
    12. GEN Stanley A. McChrystal, USA 15 June 2009 23 June 2010 Resigned and was relieved from command due to critical remarks directed at the administration in a Rolling Stone Magazine article.
    13. GEN David H. Petraeus, USA 4 July 2010 18 July 2011 Nominated to become the fourth Director of the CIA.
    14. Gen John R. Allen, USMC 18 July 2011 10 February 2013 Near the end of his term, General Allen became embroiled in an inappropriate communication investigation concerning his correspondences with Jill Kelley, and was later exonerated of any inappropriate activity.
    15. Gen Joseph F. Dunford, Jr., USMC 10 February 2013 26 August 2014 Nominated to become the 36th Commandant of the Marine Corps.
    16. GEN John F. Campbell, USA 26 August 2014 Present
    Contributing nations Main article: ISAF troop number statisticsConvoy of U.S. forces passing by in Kapisa Province.

    All NATO members have contributed troops to the ISAF, as well as some other partner states of the NATO. The numbers are based in part from NATO; when more recent numbers are available they are given.

    Troop figures are as of the latest ISAF/NATO Placemat from 3 September 2014.

    NATO nationsA Bulgarian land forces up-armored M1114 patrol in Kabul, July 2009Soldiers from the Canadian Grenadier Guards in Kandahar Province.French units on duty with ISAF.ISAF''s spokesperson Brig. Gen. Gunter Katz (right) surveys the grounds at the Afghan Defense University in 2013.Italian army soldiers in Herat Province.Norwegian soldiers in Faryab Province.Polish forces in Afghanistan.Romanian soldiers in southern Afghanistan in 2003.Visiting politicians of Spain with soldiers of the Spanish army in 2010.A Turkish brigadier during a food distribution in Afghanistan.United Kingdom''s Royal Air Force Flight Lieutenant Luke Meldon explains the components of an Afghan Air Force (AAF) C-27 Spartan to five Thunder Lab students.U.S. Marines conducting a dawn patrol in Nawa District, in Helmand Province, Afghanistan in May 2010. Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) nations U.S. President Barack Obama visiting wounded Georgian LTC Alexandre Tugushi. Non-NATO and non-EAPC nationsAn Australian Special Operations Task Group patrol in October 2009. New Zealand Army soldier and NZLAV in Afghanistan. Contributions of participating nations Main article: ISAF troop number statistics

    48 nations are contributing approximately 41,124 troops as of 3 September 2014.

    Financing
    This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
    This section requires expansion. (February 2013)
    This article is missing information about the costs incurred by ISAF and the revenues obtained through its operation. Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (February 2013)

    Resolution 1386 of the United Nations Security Council established that the expense of the ISAF operation must be borne by participating states. For this purpose the resolution established a trust fund through which contributions could be channelled to the participating states or operations concerned, and encouraged the participating states to contribute to such a fund.

    Notable soldiers
    This section requires expansion. (May 2012)
    See also Notes
  • ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1386. S/RES/1386(2001) 31 May 2001. Retrieved 21 September 2007.
  • ^ United Nations Security Council Document 1154. Annex I – International Security Force S/2001/1154 page 9. {{{date}}}. (2001) Retrieved 26 August 2008.
  • ^ Official Documents System of the United Nations
  • ^ "UNSC Resolution 1510, October 13, 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
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  • ^ Turse, Nick (11 February 2010). "The 700 Military Bases of Afghanistan". Foreign Police in Focus (FPIF). Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  • ^ United Nations Security Council Verbotim Report 5744. S/PV/5744 page 2. Mr. Churkin Russia 19 September 2007 at 17:20. Retrieved 21 September 2007.
  • ^ ISAF in Afghanistan CDI, Terrorism Project – 14 February 2002.
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  • ^ Department of Defense, "General McChrystal Resignation Letter" 26 August 2014
  • ^ BBC News, "David Petraeus CIA scandal engulfs US Gen John Allen", 13 November 2012 Last updated at 05:26 ET
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  • Further reading External links
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    • Civilian
      • Lists
      • 2001–06
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    • Coalition
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    • Aircraft
    2001 Dasht-i-Leili massacre 2002 Guantanamo Bay 2005 Bagram torture and prisoner abuse Salt Pit 2007 Shinwar shooting Hyderabad airstrike Nangar Khel incident Helmand Province airstrikes 2008 Deh Bala wedding party airstrike Azizabad airstrike Wech Baghtu wedding party airstrike 2009 Granai airstrike Kunduz airstrike Narang night raid 2010 Khataba raid Uruzgan helicopter attack Sangin airstrike Maywand District murders Tarok Kolache 2011 Mano Gai airstrike Pakistani border attack Bin Laden raid Helmand Province incident 2012 Urination video Kapisa airstrike Quran burning protests Kandahar massacre Body pictures 2014 Herat Indian Consulate Attack
    • Afghan War documents leak
    • International public opinion
    • Opposition
    • Protests
    • Wikinews
    • Commons
    • v
    • t
    • e
    War on Terror Participants Conflicts

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    War in Afghanistan • Iraq War • War in North-West Pakistan
    OperationalTargets
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