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    (Wikipedia) - Head For other uses, see Head (disambiguation).
    This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2012)
    Study on the proportions of head and eyes by Leonardo da Vinci

    A head is the cephalic part of an organism, which usually comprises the eyes, ears, nose and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions, such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste. Some very simple animals may not have a head, but many bilaterally symmetric forms do. Heads develop in animals by an evolutionary trend known as cephalization. In bilaterally symmetrical animals, nerve tissues concentrate at the anterior region, forming structures responsible for information processing. Through biological evolution, sense organs and feeding structures also concentrate into the interior region; these collectively form the head.

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    Arthropods Main article: Arthropod head problem Insects

    A typical insect head possesses a pair of antennae; eyes; mandibles, labrum, maxillae and labium (the latter four forming the cluster of "mouth parts"). Lying above the oesophagus is the brain or supraesophageal ganglion, divided into three pairs of ganglia: the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum from front to back.

    VertebratesHuman headHuman head Main article: Human head

    In human anatomy, the head is the uppermost portion of the human body. It includes (from superficial to deep) the scalp and face, the skull, the sinuses and the brain.

    Use in heraldry Main article: Heads in heraldry

    Both human and animal heads frequently occur as immobile charges in heraldry. The blazon, or heraldic description, usually states whether an animal''s head is couped (as if cut off cleanly at the neck), erased (as if forcibly ripped from the body), or cabossed (turned affronté without any of the neck showing). Human heads are often described in much greater detail, though some of these are identified by name with little or no further description.

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    Systems and organs of the animal anatomy Respiratory system Excretory system Nervous system Immune system Digestive system Reproductive system Other organs Tissues
    • Bronchus
    • Trachea
    • Lung
    • Diaphragm
    • Kidney
    • Bladder
    Brain
    • Spleen
    • Adenoid
    • Anus
    • Colon
    • Mouth
    • Pancreas
    • Rectum
    • Small intestine
    • Spleen
    • Stomach
    • Tongue
    • Tooth
    • Vermiform appendix
    • Penis
    • Bone
    • Ear
    • Eye
    • Head
    • Heart
    • Larynx
    • Liver
    • Nose
    • Pharynx
    • Rhinarium
    • Skeleton
    • Skin
    • Skull
    • Tonsil
    • Thymus
    • Thyroid
    • Tissue (biology)

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