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    * Haj Ali Razmara *

    Sepahbod Haji Ali Razmara

    حاج علی رزم‌آرا ، سپهبد رزم‌آرا


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    Sepahbod Haj Ali Razmara (1901 – March 7, 1951) was a military commander and Prime Minister of Iran.Razmara (In Persian meaning war organizer) was born in Tehran and studied at the military academy of Saint-Cyr in France and climbed his way up and eventually became Prime Minister in 1950.He was assassinated by 26 year-old Khalil Tahmasebi of the Fadayian Eslam organization with 3 bullets in Tehran at the age of 49. Razmara was the third Iranian Prime Minister to be assassinated.Razmara promoted a plan for decentralization of government together with decentralization of the Seven-Year Plan for infrastructure development and improvement. His idea was to bring government to the people; an unheard-of idea in Iran. His plan called for setting up local councils in Iran’s 84 districts to run local affairs such as health, education and agricultural programs. Razmara began trimming the government payrolls, eliminating a large number of officials out of a total of 187,000 civil servants. At one stroke he terminated nearly 400 high-placed officials. By so doing, Razmara earned the wrath of the powerful land-owning and merchant families and most conservatives without gaining the confidence of the radical Toodeh Party. Additionally his opposition to expropriation of AIOC assets at Abadan earned him the wrath of the small but powerful group of Majlis deputies known as the National Front. The National Front was led by Majlis Member, Mohammed Mosaddegh, whose leading ally in Parliament was Assembly Speaker Ayatollah Kashani.Dr. Mohammed Mosaddegh became Prime Minister within two months of Razmara's assassination. The National Front declared Prime Minister Ali Razmara an enemy of Islam and a traitor to Iran for his opposition to the terms of the Oil Nationalization Law.Although it was well known that Ayatollah Kashani controlled the Fadayian Eslam, there is no evidence that he or any other National Front member was ever officially implicated in the assassination of Prime Minister Ali Razmara.The second Iranian official to suffer at the hands of the assassins was Education Minister Dr. Abdolhamid Zangeneh. Zangeneh was dean of Law at Tehran University and was not shy about voicing his opposition to Nationalization of Oil. A few days later authorities uncovered the details of the plot to assassinate the Shah and other officials on the morning of Norooz; the Persian New Year. This led to the arrests of several Fedayian members, including its leader, Navvab Safavi. But the troubles continued with the attempted assassination of the Queen's cousin, Yaya Bakhtiari, who was severely wounded but survived. All of this occurred in conjunction with riots and demonstrations orchestrated by the outlawed Toodeh Party and National Front supporters. (Wikipedia) - Haj Ali Razmara Haji Ali Razmara 58th Prime Minister of Iran Monarch Preceded by Succeeded by Personal details Born Died Political party Religion Military service Allegiance Years of service Rank
    In office 26 June 1950 – 7 March 1951
    Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
    Ali Mansur
    Hossein Ala''
    1901 Tehran, Iran
    7 March 1951 Tehran
    Military
    Shia Islam
    IAI
    1927-1951
    Lieutenant General

    Haj Ali Razmara (Persian: حاجیعلی رزم‌آرا Ḥājī`alī Razmārā) (1901 – 7 March 1951) was a military leader and prime minister of Iran.

    He was assassinated by 26 year-old Khalil Tahmassebi of the Fadayan-e Islam organization with 3 bullets in Tehran at the age of 49. Razmara was the third Iranian prime minister to be assassinated.

    Contents

    Early life and education

    Razmara (an adopted name loosely translated as "war planner" or more accurately "battle organizer") was born in Tehran and studied at the military academy of Saint-Cyr in France.

    Career

    Razmara was appointed prime minister by the Shah in 1950. He promoted a plan for decentralization of government together with decentralization of the seven-year plan for infrastructure development and improvement. His idea was to bring government to the people; an unheard-of idea in Iran. His plan called for setting up local councils in Iran’s 84 districts to run local affairs such as health, education and agricultural programs. One of his most enduring achievements was the institution of the Point IV program via agreement with US President Harry Truman.

    Razmara began trimming the government payrolls, eliminating a large number of officials out of a total of 187,000 civil servants. At one stroke he terminated nearly 400 high-placed officials. By so doing, Razmarra earned the wrath of the powerful land-owning and merchant families and most conservatives without gaining the confidence of the radical Tudeh Party. Additionally, his opposition to the expropriation of AIOC assets at Abadan earned him the wrath of the small but powerful group of Majlis deputies known as the National Front. The National Front was led by Majlis Member, Mohammed Mossadegh, whose leading ally in Parliament was the Assembly Speaker, Ayatollah Kashani.

    Anglo-Iranian oil negotiations

    Ali Razmara came closer than any other prime minister to ratifying the supplemental oil agreement between Iran and the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). The agreement drew the ire of most Iranians and Majlis of Iran deputies because it provided far less favorable terms than the Venezuela agreement between the Standard Oil of New Jersey and the Venezuelan government, and the agreement between the Arabian-American Oil Company and the Saudi Arabian government. In addition, it gave continuous control of Iran''s oil industry to a foreign company and country; the living and working conditions of its Iranian workers were extremely poor; it refused to allow Iranians a greater voice in the company''s management; and it denied them the right to audit the company''s books. The AIOC did, however, offer a few improvements: It guaranteed that its annual royalty payments would not drop below 4 million pounds; it would reduce the area where it would be allowed to drill; and it promised to train more Iranians for administrative jobs. Razmara asked Anglo-Iranian to revise some of the agreement terms, namely to allow Iranian auditors to review their financial activities, offer Iranians managerial jobs, and pay some of the royalties to the Iranian government in advance. The British refused and lost the opportunity.

    It is important to note here that the very reason Razmara was in office was a direct result of the urgings of the British Foreign Office and the AIOC to the Shah, who wanted a stronger figure than Razmara''s predecessor, Prime Minister Mansur, to ensure the success of the Supplemental Agreement. "Only a man with fierce determination, they believed, would be strong enough to face down Mossadegh and the National Front."

    Assassination

    On 7 March 1951, Razmara went to a mosque for a memorial service. The police opened a corridor through the inner courtyard for him. The assassin, in the crowd, fired three quick shots, fatally wounding the Prime Minister. Khalil Tahmassebi, a member of the group Fadayan-e Islam, was arrested at the scene.

    At a public demonstration the following day attended by more than 8,000 Tudeh Party members and National Front supporters, Fadayan-e Islam distributed leaflets carrying a threat to assassinate the Shah and other government officials if the assassin, Tahmassebi, was not set free immediately. Threats were also issued against any Majlis member who opposed oil nationalization.

    The National Front was led by Mohammed Mossadegh, who became prime minister within two months of Razmara''s assassination. Ayatollah Seyid Abol Ghasim Kashani, the leader of the country''s mullahs, ended his support for the Fadayan-e Islam after the assassination. Kashani then became closer to the National Front. On the other hand, the assassin, Tahmassebi, was freed by the Iranian Parliament in 1952, but then he was tried and executed in 1955.

    In 1954 Navab Safavi, founder of the Fadayan-e Islam, in a speech to the Muslim Brotherhood meeting in Egypt, declared that he himself had killed Razmara.

    Effects on Iranian government
    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2011)

    On 12 March 1951 the Majlis voted to nationalize Iran’s oil. Not one Majlis member voted against the Act. A spectator in the gallery is reported to have shouted "Eight grains of gunpowder have brought this about." This was followed by a vote on March 28 to expropriate the AIOC properties at Abadan.

    The Shah appointed Hussein Ala to succeed Razmara as prime minister. This move was met by further assassinations, riots, and demonstrations throughout the country. Ala ultimately resigned his post as prime minister. The Shah opted to go with former Primer Minister Sayyid Ziya al-Din Tabatabai but the Majlis, led by the National Front, voted Mohammed Mossadegh to the post.

    The nationalization of the oil industry was supported by the vast majority of the Iranian public, who mistakenly believed it would lead to prosperity for all. After a series of further assassinations of several more government ministers by their then ally Fadā''iyān-e Islam, Prime Minister Mossadegh and the National Front were finally able to nationalize the oil and expel the AIOC. As this move dealt a severe blow to the monarchy as well as to British interests in Iran, the US and Britain orchestrated the now well-known coup d''état in 1953, code-named Operation Ajax, removing Mossadegh as Prime Minister and convincing the Shah to appoint a Prime Minister of their choosing. Mohammad Reza Shah remained in power until the 1979 revolution, which led to the establishment of the Islamic Republic.

    Notes
  • ^ Kinzer, Stephen. All The Shah''s Men (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003. p. 66
  • ^ Kinzer, Stephen. All The Shah''s Men(Hoboken, N.J.:John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003. p. 72
  • ^ a b Zabih, Sepehr (September 1982). "Aspects of Terrorism in Iran". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. International Terrorism (Sage Publications) 463: 84–94. doi:10.1177/0002716282463001007. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  • ^ a b c Ostovar, Afshon P. (2009). "Guardians of the Islamic Revolution Ideology, Politics, and the Development of Military Power in Iran (1979–2009)" (PhD Thesis). University of Michigan. Retrieved 26 July 2013. 
  • Tags:1927, AIOC, Abadan, Ajax, Ala, American, Anglo-Iranian, Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, Assassination, Ayatollah, Ayatollah Kashani, Bakhtiari, Britain, British, Egypt, Fadayan-e Islam, Fadayian Eslam, Foreign Office, France, Haj Ali Razmara, Haji, Hossein Ala, Ideology, Iran, Iranian, Iranian Parliament, Islam, Islamic, Islamic Republic, Islamic Revolution, Khalil Tahmasebi, Majlis, Michigan, Mohammad Reza Shah, Mosaddegh, Muslim, Muslim Brotherhood, National Front, Nationalization of Oil, Navvab Safavi, New Jersey, Norooz, Pahlavi, Parliament, Persian, PhD, Politics, President, Prime Minister, Prime Minister of Iran, Razmara, Revolution, Reza Shah, Safavi, Saudi, Sayyid, Science, Sepahbod, Shah, Shia, Shia Islam, Standard Oil, Supplemental Agreement, Tehran, Tehran University, Terrorism in Iran, Toodeh, Toodeh Party, Truman, US, Venezuela, Wikipedia


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