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    * Elaeagnus *

    تیره سنجد ، الاگنوس


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    (Wikipedia) - Elaeagnus Elaeagnus Scientific classification Species
    Elaeagnus commutata
    Kingdom: Plantae
    (unranked): Angiosperms
    (unranked): Eudicots
    (unranked): Rosids
    Order: Rosales
    Family: Elaeagnaceae
    Genus: Elaeagnus L.

    See text

    Elaeagnus /ˌɛliːˈæɡnəs/, silverberry or oleaster, is a genus of about 50–70 species of flowering plants in the family Elaeagnaceae.

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    Habitat

    The vast majority of the species are native to temperate and subtropical regions of Asia. Elaeagnus triflora extends from Asia south into northeastern Australia, while E. commutata is native to North America, and Elaeagnus philippinensis is native to the Philippines. One of the Asian species, E. angustifolia, may also be native in southeasternmost Europe, though it may instead be an early human introduction there. Also, several Asiatic species of Elaeagnus have become established as introduced species in North America, with some of these species being considered invasive, or even designated as noxious, in portions of the United States.

    Description

    Elaeagnus plants are deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees. The alternate leaves and the shoots are usually covered with tiny silvery to brownish scales, giving the plants a whitish to grey-brown colour from a distance. The flowers are small, with a four-lobed calyx and no petals; they are often fragrant. The fruit is a fleshy drupe containing a single seed; it is edible in many species. Several species are cultivated for their fruit, including E. angustifolia, E. umbellata and E. multiflora (gumi).

    Cultivation

    Elaeagnus species are widely cultivated for their showy, often variegated, foliage, and numerous cultivars and hybrids have been developed.

    E. angustifolia cultivated as bonsai

    Notable species and hybrids in cultivation include:-

    The cultivar ''Gilt Edge'' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society''s Award of Garden Merit.

    Other uses

    E. umbellata is reputed to have a high amount of the carotenoid antioxidant, lycopene and has been shown to display antioxidant properties effective against cancer mechanisms in vitro. E. multiflora is among the nutraceutical plants that Chinese use both for food and medicine. Both of these species have small but abundant tasty berries.

    Berries from a large-fruited cultivarEcology

    Elaeagnus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora elaeagnisella and the gothic moths. The thorny shrubs can also provide good nesting sites for birds.

    Nitrogen fixation

    Many Elaeagnus species harbor nitrogen fixing organisms in their roots, and are therefore able to grow well in low-nitrogen soil. This ability results in multiple ecological consequences where these Elaeagnus species are present:

    Selected species

    See also items containing : Elaeagnus

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