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    * Cyprus *

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    Cyprus was inhabited by the early Neolithic Period; by the late Bronze Age it had been visited and settled by Mycenaeans and Achaeans, who introduced Greek culture and language, and it became a trading centre. By 800 BC Phoenicians had begun to settle there. Ruled over the centuries by the Assyrian, Persian, and Ptolemaic empires, it was annexed by the Roman Republic and Empire in 58 BC. It was part of the Byzantine Empire in the 4th–11th centuries AD. It was conquered by the English king Richard I (the Lionheart) in 1191. A part of the Venetian trading empire from 1489, it was taken by Ottoman Empire in 1573. In 1878 the British assumed control, and Cyprus became a British crown colony in 1924. It gained independence in 1960. Conflict between Greek and Turkish Cypriots led to the establishment of a United Nations (UN) peacekeeping mission in 1964. In 1974, fearing a movement to unite Cyprus with Greece, the Republic of Turkey sent troops to occupy the northern third of the country. Turkish Cypriots established a functioning government, which obtained recognition only from Turkey. (Wikipedia) - Cyprus This article is about the country. For other uses, see Cyprus (disambiguation). Republic of Cyprus Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Greek) Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti  (Turkish) Official languages Minority languages Demonym Government Legislature Independence from the United Kingdom Area Population Currency Time zone Drives on the Calling code ISO 3166 code Internet TLD
    Flag Coat of arms
    Anthem: Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν "Hymn to Liberty"Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player. You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser.
    Location of the Republic of Cyprus (dark green & light green) areas outside of Cypriot control (light green) in the European Union (green)
    Capital Nicosia 35°10′N 33°22′E / 35.167°N 33.367°E / 35.167; 33.367
    • Greek
    • Turkish
    Ethnic groups
    • Greek Cypriots
    • Turkish Cypriots
    • Armenian Cypriots
    • Maronite Cypriots
    • Roma
    Cypriot
    Unitary presidential constitutional republic
     -  President Nicos Anastasiades
    House of Representatives
     -  Zürich and London Agreement 19 February 1959 
     -  Independence proclaimed 16 August 1960 
     -  Independence Day 1 October 1960 
     -  Joined the European Union 1 May 2004 
     -  Total 9,251 km2 (168th) 3,572 sq mi
     -  Water (%) 9
     -  2011 estimate 1,117,000
     -  2011 census 838,897
     -  Density 90.7/km2 (114th) 234.85/sq mi
    GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
     -  Total $23.613 billion
     -  Per capita $27,085
    GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
     -  Total $23.006 billion
     -  Per capita $26,389
    Gini (2011) 29.1 low · 19th
    HDI (2013)  0.845 very high · 32nd
    Euro (EUR)
    EET (UTC+2)
     -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
    left
    +357
    CY
    .cy
  • ^ The Greek national anthem was adopted in 1966 by executive decree.
  • ^ a b Including Northern Cyprus, the UN buffer zone and Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
  • ^ Excluding Northern Cyprus.
  • ^ The .eu domain is also used, shared with other European Union member states.
  • This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

    Cyprus i/ˈsaɪprəs/ (Greek: Κύπρος ; Turkish: Kıbrıs ), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Greek: Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Turkish: Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Cyprus is the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, and a member state of the European Union. It is located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt and east of Greece.

    The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, and Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC. At a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Roman Empire, the Byzantines, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878 (de jure until 1914).

    Cyprus was placed under British administration on 4 June 1878 (formally annexed by Britain on 5 November 1914, in response to the Ottoman government''s decision to join World War I on the side of the Central Powers) until it was granted independence in 1960, becoming a member of the Commonwealth in 1961. In 1963, the 11-year intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots started, which almost sparked a war in 1964 between Turkey and Greece. This was avoided through the last minute intermediation of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. Ten years later, on 15 July 1974, the Cypriot coup d''état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta with the aim of achieving Enosis (union of Cyprus with Greece). Turkey, as one of the three "Guarantor States" in Cyprus (together with the United Kingdom and Greece) according to the Treaty of Guarantee (1960), used the Enosis attempt as a pretext to invade the northern portion of the island five days later, on 20 July 1974. Turkish forces remained in Cyprus after the cease-fire, resulting in the effective partitioning of the island; an objective of Turkey since 1955. The intercommunal violence, attempted coup by Greek forces and subsequent Turkish invasion led to the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots, and the establishment in 1983 of a separate Turkish Cypriot political entity in the north. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute.

    The Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the island of Cyprus and its surrounding waters, according to international law, except for the British Overseas Territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, administered as Sovereign Base Areas. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts; the area under the effective control of the Republic, comprising about 59% of the island''s area, and the Turkish-controlled area in the north, calling itself the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and recognised only by Turkey, covering about 36% of the island''s area. The international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus illegally occupied by Turkish forces.

    Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. With an advanced, high-income economy and a very high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the Eurozone.

    Contents

    EtymologyA copper mine on Cyprus - in antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper

    The earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th-century BC Mycenaean Greek

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