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    (Wikipedia) - Cherry This article is about the fruit. For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). For the species called "wild cherry" in the British Isles, see Prunus avium. For other uses, see Wild Cherry. "Cherry tree" redirects here. For story about George Washington''s honesty, see Parson Weems § The cherry-tree anecdote.Prunus avium, sweet cherry, also called wild cherry

    The cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). The cherry fruits of commerce are usually obtained from a limited number of species such as cultivars of the sweet cherry, Prunus avium. The name ''cherry'' also refers to the cherry tree, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry", "cherry blossom", etc. Wild Cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside of cultivation, although Prunus avium is often referred to specifically by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles.

    Contents

    BotanyPrunus padus, bird cherry

    Many cherries are members of the subgenus Cerasus, which is distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together (not singly, nor in racemes), and by having smooth fruit with only a weak groove or none along one side. The subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, and the remainder in Asia. Other cherry fruits are members of subgenus Padus. Cherry trees with low exposure to light tend to have a bigger leaf size so they can intercept all light possible. Cherry trees with high exposure to light tend to have thicker leaves to concentrate light and have a higher photosynthetic capacity.

    Most eating cherries are derived from either Prunus avium, the sweet cherry (also called the wild cherry), or from Prunus cerasus, the sour cherry.

    History Etymology and antiquity

    The indigenous range of the sweet cherry extends through most of Europe, western Asia and parts of northern Africa, and the fruit has been consumed throughout its range since prehistoric times. A cultivated cherry, as well as the apricot, is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia, also known as the Pontus region, historic Armenia, in 72 BC.

    A form of cherry was introduced into England at Teynham, near Sittingbourne in Kent by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders.

    The English word cherry, French cerise and Spanish cereza all come from the classical Greek (κέρασος) through the Latin cerasum, thus the ancient Greek place name Cerasus, today a city in northern Turkey Giresun from which the cherry was first exported to Europe.

    Wildlife value

    Cherry trees also provide food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera.

    Cultivation

    The cultivated forms are of the species sweet cherry (P. avium) to which most cherry cultivars belong, and the sour cherry (P. cerasus), which is used mainly for cooking. Both species originate in Europe and western Asia; they do not cross-pollinate. Some other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Irrigation, spraying, labor, and their propensity to damage from rain and hail make cherries relatively expensive. Nonetheless, demand is high for the fruit. In commercial production, cherries are harvested by using a mechanized ''shaker''. Hand picking is also widely used to harvest the fruit to avoid damage to both fruit and trees.

    Growing seasonRipe cherries of Tehran in the middle of June.

    Cherries have a very short growing season and can grow in most temperate latitudes. The peak season for cherries is in the summer. In Australia and New Zealand they are usually at their peak in late December, in southern Europe in June, in North America in June, in south British Columbia (Canada) in July to mid-August and in the UK in mid-July. In many parts of North America, they are among the first tree fruits to ripen, while in Australia and New Zealand cherries are widely associated with Christmas.

    ''Kordia'' is an early variety which ripens during the beginning of December, ''Lapins peak'' ripens near the end of December, and ''Sweethearts'' finish slightly later in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Like most temperate-latitude trees, cherry seeds require exposure to cold to germinate (a mechanism the tree evolved to prevent germination during the autumn, which would then result in the seedling being killed by winter temperatures). The pits are planted in the autumn (after first being chilled) and seedlings emerge in the spring. A cherry tree will take three to four years to produce its first crop of fruit, and seven years to attain full maturity. Because of the cold-weather requirement, none of the Prunus family can grow in tropical climates.

    Cultivars

    The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society''s Award of Garden Merit:

    Name Size Ref.
    Accolade 64m²
    Amanogawa 32m²
    Autumnalis (P. × subhirtella) 64m²
    Autumnalis Rosea (P. × subhirtella) 32m²
    Avium Grandiflora see Plena
    Colorata (P. padus) 96m²
    Grandiflora see Plena
    Kanzan 100m²+
    Kiku-shidare-zakura 16m²+
    Kursar 64m²
    Morello (P. cerasus) 16m²
    Okamé (P. × incam) 96m²
    Pandora 96m²
    Pendula Rosea 16m²
    Name Size Ref.
    Pendula Rubra 16m²
    Pink Perfection 64m²
    Plena (Grandiflora) 100m²+
    Praecox (P. incisa) 64m²
    Prunus avium (sweet cherry) 120m²+
    Prunus × cistena 2.5m²
    Prunus sargentii 100m²+
    Prunus serrula (Tibetan cherry) 100m²+
    Shirofugen 64m²
    Shirotai 64m²
    Shōgetsu 64m²
    Spire 96m²
    Stella 16m²
    Ukon 64m²+
    Ornamental trees

    See cherry blossom and Prunus.

    Commercial productionWorldwide cherry yield Top Cherry Producing Nations - 2012 (in metric tons) Rank Country Production Sum 2,033,256 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization
    1  Turkey 480,748
    2  United States 384,646
    3  Iran 200,000
    4  Italy 104,766
    5  Spain 98,400
    6  Chile 90,000
    7  Uzbekistan 84,000
    8  Syria 82,341
    9  Ukraine 72,600
    10  Russia 72,000
    11  Romania 70,542
    12  Greece 60,300
    13  Poland 41,063
    14  Austria 38,680
    15  China 35,500
    16  France 30,440
    17  Germany 23,005
    18  Lebanon 22,500
    19  Serbia 22,213
    20  Bulgaria 19,512
    Top Sour Cherry Producing Nations - 2012 (in metric tons) Rank Country Production Sum 1,131,534 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization
    1  Turkey 187,941
    2  Russia 183,300
    3  Poland 175,391
    4  Ukraine 172,800
    5  Iran 105,000
    6  Serbia 74,656
    7  Hungary 53,425
    8  United States 38,601
    9  Uzbekistan 34,000
    10  Azerbaijan 23,085
    11  Albania 17,000
    12  Germany 12,941
    13  Belarus 10,674
    14  Macedonia 8,127
    15  Moldova 7,996
    16  Italy 7,000
    17  Croatia 6,000
    18  Denmark 4,868
    19  Armenia 4,699
    20  Austria 4,030
    EurasiaCherries

    Major commercial cherry orchards in West Asia and Europe are in Turkey (mainly Anatolia), Lebanon (Bekaa Valley), Syria (Golan Heights), Israel (Northern Galilee), Italy and Spain, and to a smaller extent in the Baltic States and southern Scandinavia.

    North America

    In the United States, most sweet cherries are grown in Washington, California, Oregon, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Important sweet cherry cultivars include ''Bing'', ''Brooks'', ''Tulare'', ''King'', ''Sweetheart'', and ''Rainier''. In addition, the ''Lambert'' variety is grown on the eastern side of Flathead Lake in northwestern Montana. Both Oregon and Michigan provide light-colored ''Royal Ann'' (''Napoleon''; alternately ''Queen Anne'') cherries for the maraschino cherry process. Most sour (also called tart) cherries are grown in Michigan, followed by Utah, New York, and Washington. Sour cherries include ''Nanking'' and ''Evans''. Traverse City, Michigan claims to be the "Cherry Capital of the World", hosting a National Cherry Festival and making the world''s largest cherry pie. The specific region of northern Michigan known for tart cherry production is referred to as the "Traverse Bay" region.

    Native and non-native sweet cherries grow well in Canada''s provinces of Ontario and British Columbia where an annual cherry fiesta has been celebrated for 66 consecutive years (including 2014) in the Okanagan Valley town of Osoyoos. In addition to the Okanagan, other British Columbia cherry growing regions are the Similkameen Valley and Kootenay Valley, all three regions together producing 5.5 million kg annually or 60% of total Canadian output. Sweet cherry varieties in British Columbia include Rainier, Van, Chelan, Lapin, Sweetheart, Skeena, Staccato, Christalina and Bing.

    Australia

    In Australia, cherries are grown in all the states except for the Northern Territory. The major producing regions are located in the temperate areas within New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. Western Australia has limited production in the elevated parts in southwest of the state. Key production areas include Young, Orange and Bathurst in New South Wales, Wandin, the Goulburn and Murray valley areas in Victoria, the Adelaide Hills region in South Australia, and the Huon and Derwent Valleys in Tasmania.

    Key commercial varieties in order of seasonality include ''Empress'', ''Merchant'', ''Supreme'', ''Ron''s seedling'', ''Chelan'', ''Ulster'', ''Van'', ''Bing'', ''Stella'', ''Nordwunder'', ''Lapins'', ''Simone'', ''Regina'', ''Kordia'' and ''Sweetheart''. New varieties are being introduced, including the late season ''Staccato'' and early season ''Sequoia''. The Australian Cherry Breeding program is developing a series of new varieties which are under testing evaluation.

    The New South Wales town of Young is called the "Cherry Capital of Australia" and hosts the National Cherry Festival.

    Nutritional value
    Cherries, sour, red, raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Dietary fiber FatProtein Vitamins Vitamin A equiv. beta-carotene lutein zeaxanthin Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pantothenic acid (B5) Vitamin B6 Folate (B9) Choline Vitamin C Vitamin K Trace metals Calcium Iron Magnesium Manganese Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc
    209 kJ (50 kcal)
    12.2 g
    8.5 g
    1.6 g
    0.3 g
    1 g
    (8%) 64 μg(7%) 770 μg 85 μg
    (3%) 0.03 mg
    (3%) 0.04 mg
    (3%) 0.4 mg
    (3%) 0.143 mg
    (3%) 0.044 mg
    (2%) 8 μg
    (1%) 6.1 mg
    (12%) 10 mg
    (2%) 2.1 μg
    (2%) 16 mg
    (2%) 0.32 mg
    (3%) 9 mg
    (5%) 0.112 mg
    (2%) 15 mg
    (4%) 173 mg
    (0%) 3 mg
    (1%) 0.1 mg
    Link to USDA Database entry
    • Units
    • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
    • IU = International units
    Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database
    Cherries, sweet, red, raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Dietary fiber FatProtein Vitamins Vitamin A equiv. beta-carotene lutein zeaxanthin Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pantothenic acid (B5) Vitamin B6 Folate (B9) Choline Vitamin C Vitamin K Trace metals Calcium Iron Magnesium Manganese Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc
    263 kJ (63 kcal)
    16 g
    12.8 g
    2.1 g
    0.2 g
    1.1 g
    (0%) 3 μg(0%) 38 μg 85 μg
    (2%) 0.027 mg
    (3%) 0.033 mg
    (1%) 0.154 mg
    (4%) 0.199 mg
    (4%) 0.049 mg
    (1%) 4 μg
    (1%) 6.1 mg
    (8%) 7 mg
    (2%) 2.1 μg
    (1%) 13 mg
    (3%) 0.36 mg
    (3%) 11 mg
    (3%) 0.07 mg
    (3%) 21 mg
    (5%) 222 mg
    (0%) 0 mg
    (1%) 0.07 mg
    Link to USDA Database entry
    • Units
    • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
    • IU = International units
    Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

    As raw fruit, sweet cherries provide little nutrient content per 100 g serving (nutrient table). Dietary fiber and vitamin C are present in the most significant content while other vitamins and dietary minerals each supply less than 10% of the Daily Value (DV) per serving, respectively.

    Compared to sweet cherries, raw sour cherries contain higher content per 100 g of vitamin C (12% DV) and vitamin A (8% DV).

    Other information

    The wood of some cherry species is especially esteemed for the manufacture of fine furniture.

    Species

    The list below contains many Prunus species that bear the common name cherry, but they are not necessarily members of the subgenus Cerasus, or bear edible fruit. For a complete list of species, see Prunus. Some common names listed here have historically been used for more than one species, e.g. "rock cherry" is used as an alternative common name for both P. prostrata and P. mahaleb and "wild cherry" is used for several species.

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