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    * CERN *

    Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire*European Organization for Nuclear Research

    مرکزسرن ، سازمان اروپایی پژوهش‌های هسته‌ای


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    (Wikipedia) - CERN For the company with the ticker symbol CERN, see Cerner. For the rocket nozzle, see SERN.

    Coordinates: 46°14′03″N 6°03′10″E / 46.23417°N 6.05278°E / 46.23417; 6.05278

    European Organization for Nuclear Research Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire Formation Headquarters Membership Official languages PresidentDirector GeneralWebsite
    Member states
    29 September 1954
    Meyrin, Canton de Genève, Switzerland
    21 member states and 7 observers
    English and French
    Agnieszka Zalewska
    Rolf-Dieter Heuer
    CERN

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire), known as CERN (/ˈsɜrn/; French pronunciation: ​; see History) is a European research organization whose purpose is to operate the world''s largest particle physics laboratory. Established in 1954, the organization is based in the northwest suburbs of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border, (46°14′3″N 6°3′19″E / 46.23417°N 6.05528°E / 46.23417; 6.05528) and has 21 European member states. Israel is the first (and currently only) non-European country granted full membership.

    The term CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory, which in 2013 counted 2513 staff members, and hosted some 12,313 fellows, associates, apprentices as well as visiting scientists and engineers representing 608 universities and research facilities and 113 nationalities.

    CERN''s main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research – as a result, numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN following international collaborations. It is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web. The main site at Meyrin has a large computer centre containing powerful data processing facilities, primarily for experimental-data analysis; because of the need to make these facilities available to researchers elsewhere, it has historically been a major wide area networking hub.

    Contents

    HistoryThe 12 founding member states of CERN in 1954 (map borders from 1989)

    The convention establishing CERN was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe. The acronym CERN originally stood in French for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for setting up the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved, even though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1954. According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the acronym could have become the awkward OERN, and Heisenberg said that the acronym could "still be CERN even if the name is ".

    CERN''s first president was Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser. The first Director General was Edoardo Amaldi.

    Soon after the laboratory''s establishment, its work went beyond the study of the atomic nucleus into higher-energy physics, which is concerned mainly with the study of interactions between particles. Therefore the laboratory operated by CERN is commonly referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics (Laboratoire européen pour la physique des particules) which better describes the research being performed at CERN.

    Scientific achievements

    Several important achievements in particle physics have been made during experiments at CERN. They include:

    The 1984 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that led to the discoveries of the W and Z bosons. The 1992 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber."

    Computer science See also: History of the World Wide WebThis NeXT Computer used by British scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN became the first Web server.This Cisco Systems router at CERN was probably one of the first IP routers deployed in Europe.

    The World Wide Web began as a CERN project called ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990. Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web.

    Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was aimed at facilitating sharing information among researchers. The first website went on-line in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. A copy of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web Consortium''s website as a historical document.

    Prior to the Web''s development, CERN had been a pioneer in the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s. A short history of this period can be found at CERN.ch.

    More recently, CERN has become a centre for the development of grid computing, hosting projects including the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) and LHC Computing Grid. It also hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point (CIXP), one of the two main internet exchange points in Switzerland.

    Faster-than-light neutrino anomaly Main article: Faster-than-light neutrino anomaly

    On 22 September 2011, the OPERA Collaboration reported the detection of 17-GeV and 28-GeV muon neutrinos, sent 730 kilometers (450 miles) from CERN near Geneva, Switzerland to the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy, traveling apparently faster than light by a factor of 2.48×10−5 (approximately 1 in 40,000), a statistic with 6.0-sigma significance. However, in March 2012 it was reported by a new team of scientists for CERN, Icarus, that the previous experiment was most likely flawed and will be retested by scientists of both the Opera and Icarus teams; on 16 March, CERN stated in a press release that the results were flawed due to an incorrectly connected GPS-synchronization cable.

    Particle accelerators Current complexMap of the CERN accelerator complexMap of the Large Hadron Collider together with the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN

    CERN operates a network of six accelerators and a decelerator. Each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them to experiments or to the next more powerful accelerator. Currently active machines are:

    Large Hadron Collider Main article: Large Hadron Collider

    Most of the activities at CERN are currently directed towards operating the new Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the experiments for it. The LHC represents a large-scale, worldwide scientific cooperation project.

    Construction of the CMS detector for LHC at CERN

    The LHC tunnel is located 100 metres underground, in the region between the Geneva International Airport and the nearby Jura mountains. It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by LEP which was closed down in November 2000. CERN''s existing PS/SPS accelerator complexes will be used to pre-accelerate protons which will then be injected into the LHC.

    Seven experiments (CMS, ATLAS, LHCb, MoEDAL, TOTEM, LHC-forward and ALICE) will run on the collider; each of them will study particle collisions from a different point of view, and with different technologies. Construction for these experiments required an extraordinary engineering effort. Just as an example, a special crane had to be rented from Belgium in order to lower pieces of the CMS detector into its underground cavern, since each piece weighed nearly 2,000 tons. The first of the approximately 5,000 magnets necessary for construction was lowered down a special shaft at 13:00 GMT on 7 March 2005.

    This accelerator has begun to generate vast quantities of data, which CERN streams to laboratories around the world for distributed processing (making use of a specialized grid infrastructure, the LHC Computing Grid). In April 2005, a trial successfully streamed 600 MB/s to seven different sites across the world. If all the data generated by the LHC is to be analysed, then scientists must achieve 1,800 MB/s before 2008.

    The initial particle beams were injected into the LHC August 2008. The first attempt to circulate a beam through the entire LHC was at 8:28 GMT on 10 September 2008, but the system failed because of a faulty magnet connection, and it was stopped for repairs on 19 September 2008.

    The LHC resumed operation on Friday 20 November 2009 by successfully circulating two beams, each with an energy of 3.5 trillion electron volts. The challenge that the engineers then faced was to try to line up the two beams so that they smashed into each other. This is like "firing two needles across the Atlantic and getting them to hit each other" according to the LHC''s main engineer Steve Myers, director for accelerators and technology at the Swiss laboratory.

    At 1200 BST on Tuesday 30 March 2010 the LHC successfully smashed two proton particle beams travelling with 3.5 TeV (trillion electron volts) of energy, resulting in a 7 TeV event. However, this was just the start of the road toward the expected discovery of the Higgs boson. When the 7 TeV experimental period ended, the LHC revved up to 8 TeV (4 TeV acceleration in both directions) in March 2012, and soon began particle collisions at that rate. In early 2013 the LHC was shut down for a two-year maintenance period, to strengthen the huge magnets inside the accelerator. Eventually it will attempt to create 14 TeV events. In July 2012, CERN scientists announced the discovery of a new sub-atomic particle that could be the much sought after Higgs boson believed to be essential for formation of the Universe. In March 2013, CERN announced that the measurements performed on the newly found particle allowed to conclude that this is a Higgs boson.

    Decommissioned accelerators SitesCERN''s main site, from Switzerland looking towards FranceInterior of office building 40 at the Meyrin site. Building 40 hosts many offices for scientists from the CMS and ATLAS collaborations.

    The smaller accelerators are on the main Meyrin site (also known as the West Area), which was originally built in Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965. The French side is under Swiss jurisdiction and there is no obvious border within the site, apart from a line of marker stones. There are six entrances to the Meyrin site:

    The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French farmland and invisible from the surface. However, they have surface sites at various points around them, either as the location of buildings associated with experiments or other facilities needed to operate the colliders such as cryogenic plants and access shafts. The experiments are located at the same underground level as the tunnels at these sites.

    Three of these experimental sites are in France, with ATLAS in Switzerland, although some of the ancillary cryogenic and access sites are in Switzerland. The largest of the experimental sites is the Prévessin site, also known as the North Area, which is the target station for non-collider experiments on the SPS accelerator. Other sites are the ones which were used for the UA1, UA2 and the LEP experiments (the latter which will be used for LHC experiments).

    Outside of the LEP and LHC experiments, most are officially named and numbered after the site where they were located. For example, NA32 was an experiment looking at the production of charmed particles and located at the Prévessin (North Area) site while WA22 used the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) at the Meyrin (West Area) site to examine neutrino interactions. The UA1 and UA2 experiments were considered to be in the Underground Area, i.e. situated underground at sites on the SPS accelerator.

    Most of the roads on the CERN campus are named after famous physicists, e.g.- Richard Feynman, Niels Bohr, Albert Einstein.

    Participation and funding Member states and budgetMember states of CERN and current enlargement agenda   CERN members   Accession in progress   Declared intent to join

    Since its foundation by 12 members in 1954, CERN regularly accepted new members. All new members have remained in the organization continuously since their accession, except Spain and Yugoslavia. Spain first joined CERN in 1961, withdrew in 1969, and rejoined in 1983. Yugoslavia was a founding member of CERN but left in 1961. Initially only West Germany was a (founding) member of CERN. Of the twenty members, 18 are European Union member states. Switzerland and Norway are not. Israel joined CERN as a full member on 6 January 2014, becoming the first (and currently only) non-European member.

    As of 2014, CERN receives contributions from states with a total population of about 517 million people. Averaged across those states, the contribution per person in 2014 is about 2.2 CHF/year.

    Member state Status since Contribution (million CHF for 2014) Contribution (fraction of total for 2014) Contribution per capita (CHF/person for 2014)
    Founding Members
     Belgium 01954-09-29-000029 September 1954 700130500000000000030.5 70002500000000000002.5% 70002700000000000002.7
     Denmark 01954-09-29-000029 September 1954 700119300000000000019.3 70001600000000000001.6% 70003400000000000003.4
     France 01954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7002169200000000000169.2 700114000000000000014.0% 70002600000000000002.6
     Germany 01954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7002222900000000000222.9 700118500000000000018.5% 70002800000000999992.8
     Greece 01954-09-29-000029 September 1954 700118000000000000018.0 70001500000000000001.5% 70001600000000000001.6
     Italy 01954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7002126200000000000126.2 700110500000000000010.5% 70002100000000000002.1
     Netherlands 01954-09-29-000029 September 1954 700150600000000000050.6 70004200000000000004.2% 70003000000000000003.0
     Norway 01954-09-29-000029 September 1954 700128000000000000028.0 70002300000000999992.3% 70005400000000000005.4
     Sweden 01954-09-29-000029 September 1954 700128700000000000028.7 70002400000000000002.4% 70003000000000000003.0
      Switzerland 01954-09-29-000029 September 1954 700140000000000000040.0 70003300000000000003.3% 70004900000000000004.9
     United Kingdom 01954-09-29-000029 September 1954 7002152600000000000152.6 700112700000000000012.7% 70002400000000000002.4
    Acceded Members
     Austria 01959-06-01-00001 June 1959 700124400000000000024.4 70002000000000000002.0% 70002900000000000002.9
     Spain 01983-01-01-00001 January 1983 700191100000000000091.1 70007600000000000007.6% 70002000000000000002.0
     Portugal 01986-01-01-00001 January 1986 700113200000000000013.2 70001100000000000001.1% 70001300000000000001.3
     Finland 01991-01-01-00001 January 1991 700115300000000000015.3 70001300000000000001.3% 70002800000000999992.8
     Poland 01991-07-01-00001 July 1991 700129300000000000029.3 70002400000000000002.4% 69998000000000000000.8
     Hungary 01992-07-01-00001 July 1992 70007100000000000007.1 69996000000000000000.6% 69997000000000000000.7
     Czech Republic 01993-07-01-00001 July 1993 700111300000000000011.3 69999000000000000000.9% 70001100000000000001.1
     Slovakia 01993-07-01-00001 July 1993 70005500000000000005.5 69995000000000000000.5% 70001000000000000001.0
     Bulgaria 01999-03-11-000011 March 1999 70003100000000000003.1 69993000000000000000.3% 69994000000000000000.4
     Israel 02014-01-06-00006 January 2014 700122100000000000022.1 70001800000000000001.8% 70002700000000000002.7
    Candidate Member
     Romania 02010-02-11-000011 February 2010 70007900000000000007.9 69997000000000000000.7% 69994000000000000000.4
    Associate Member in the pre-stage to Membership
     Serbia 02012-03-15-000015 March 2012 70001000000000000001.0 69991000000000000000.1% 69991000000000000000.1
    Associate Members
     Cyprus 02012-10-05-00005 October 2012  %
     Ukraine 02013-10-03-00003 October 2013  %
     Turkey 02014-05-12-000012 May 2014  %
     Pakistan 02014-06-19-000019 June 2014  %
    zaTotal Members, Candidates and Associates 70031117500000000001,117.5 700192700000000000092.7%
    zb European Union 01985-07-01-00001 July 1985 700118800000000000018.8 70001600000000000001.6%
    zdOther income 02014-01-01-0000— 700169200000000000069.2 70005700000000000005.7%
    zeTotal CERN 70031205500000000001,205.5 7002100000000000000100.0%
  • ^ Based on the population in 2014.
  • ^ 12 founding members drafted the Convention for the Establishment of a European Organization for Nuclear Research which entered into force on 29 September 1954.
  • ^ Acceded members became CERN member states upon signing an accession agreement.
  • ^ a b Additional contribution from Candidates for Accession and Associate Member States.
  • Maps of the history of CERN membership
    • 1954 (12 members): CERN is founded a (1989 borders)

    • 1959 (13 members): Austria joins (1989 borders)

    • 1961 (13 members): Spain joins and Yugoslavia leaves (1989 borders)

    • 1969 (12 members): Spain leaves (1989 borders)

    • 1983 (13 members): Spain re-joins (1989 borders)

    • 1985 (14 members): Portugal joins (1989 borders)

    • 1991 (16 members): Poland and Finland join, and Germany has been reunified (2008 borders)

    • 1992 (17 members): Hungary joins (2008 borders)

    • 1993 (19 members): Czech Republic and Slovakia join (2008 borders)

    • 1999 (20 members): Bulgaria joins (2008 borders)

    • Animated map showing changes in CERN membership from 1954 until 1999 (borders are as at 1989 and 2008)

    Enlargement

    Associate Members, Candidates (note that dates are initial signature, not of ratification):

    More countries have confirmed their wish to become members and are awaiting approval from the CERN Council:

    International relations  CERN member states: 21 c.   Accession in progress: 3 c.   Declared intent to join: 2 c.   Observers: 4 c. + EU   Cooperation agreement: 35 c. + Slovenia, Cyprus, Turkey   Scientific contacts: 19 c.

    Four countries have observer status:

    Also observers are the following international organizations:

    Non-Member States (with dates of Co-operation Agreements) currently involved in CERN programmes are:

    CERN also has scientific contacts with the following countries:

    International research institutions, such as CERN, can aid in science diplomacy.

    Public exhibitsThe Globe of Science and Innovation at CERN

    Facilities at CERN open to the public include:

    In popular cultureline 18 goes to CERNThe statue of Shiva presented by the Department of Atomic Energy of India. Associated institutions
    This section requires expansion. (October 2013)

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