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  • Section: Herbalism /Sunday 12th October 2014

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    * Boldo *

    بولدو


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    (Wikipedia) - Boldo "Boldo" is also a settlement in Arauco Province (Chile) named after this tree. Boldo Scientific classification Binomial name
    Kingdom: Plantae
    (unranked): Angiosperms
    (unranked): Magnoliids
    Order: Laurales
    Family: Monimiaceae
    Genus: Peumus Molina
    Species: P. boldus
    Peumus boldus Molina

    Peumus boldus, the only species in the genus Peumus, is commonly known as Boldo (from the Mapudungun name foḻo). This tree of the family Monimiaceae is natively endemic to the central region of Chile, occurring from 33° to 40° southern latitude. Boldo has also been introduced to Europe and North Africa, though it is not often seen outside botanical gardens.

    Together with litre, quillay, peumo, bollén and other indigenous plants, it is a characteristic component of the sclerophyllous forest endemic to central Chile. Its leaves, which have a strong, woody and slightly bitter flavor and camphor-like aroma, are used for culinary purposes, primarily in Latin America. The leaves are used in a similar manner to bay leaves and also used as an herbal tea, primarily in Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Brazil and bordering countries in South America.

    Contents

    Growth

    Although not well known, boldo fruits, which appear between December and February, are very tasty, nutritious, small, green, edible spheres. Boldo''s assertive flavor comes primarily from the presence of the chemical ascaridole, which is also present in the epazote plant.

    Uses

    In Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay boldo is mixed with yerba mate or other teas to moderate its flavor. Some families keep a boldo plant at home for this purpose, although boldo teabags are readily available in nearly all supermarkets.

    It is believed that the leaves of the boldo plant can be used as an effective hangover and upset stomach cure. Boldo and plants with similar properties are widely used as mild folk medicine in various South American countries in both urban and rural areas, even among people who do not usually drink herbal teas other than mate beverage. Boldo is officially listed as phytotherapic plant as cholagogue and choleretic, for treatment of mild dyspepsia in Brazilian pharmacopoeia.

    Boldo is in the family Monimiaceae, which is closely related to the family Lauraceae (which includes many other plants used for their aromatic leaves, such as cinnamon, cassia, bay leaf, and camphor laurel.)

    Toxicity

    In 2009 the European Medicines Agency assessed boldo as follows:

    Boldo leaf contains the alkaloid boldine. Boldo leaf also contains 2-4% of volatile oil. Major constituents reported as: ascaridole (16-38%), 1,8-cineole (11-39%) and p-cymene (9-29%) (Bradley, 2006). Ascaridole is highly toxic, and this raises concerns about the suitability of boldo leaf in traditional herbal medicinal products.

    Abortifacient and teratogenic effects in rats were observed with high doses of a dry ethanolic extract and boldine.

    Most investigations have been carried out using boldine. Limited information is available on herbal preparations of boldo leaf and where studies have been reported, details of the preparations are usually lacking. There are no reported genotoxicity or carcinogenicity studies with herbal preparations of boldo leaf.

    Boldo oil should not be used internally or externally. Where boldo leaf is used, the total exposure to ascaridole should be considered from a safety standpoint. The levels of ascaridole in herbal medicinal products should be quantified. In view of the low solubility of ascaridole in water the use of aqueous extracts including herbal teas could be accepted. The use of ethanolic extracts of boldo leaf is not considered acceptable for traditional herbal medicinal products in view of the potentially higher levels of the toxic ascaridole constituent.

    Tags:Africa, American, Argentina, Boldo, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Europe, Latin America, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Wikipedia


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