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    Arab Socialist Baath Party

    بعث ، حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي‎


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    The Arab Socialist Baath Party which means resurrection or renaissance (reddyah); is a political party, mixing Arab nationalist and Arab socialist interests, opposed to Western imperialism and calling for the renaissance or resurrection of the Arab World and its unity in one united state. Its motto — "Unity, Liberty, Socialism" (Arabic وحدة، حرية، اشتراكية) - refers to Arab unity, freedom from non-Arab control and interference. Its ideology of Arab socialism is notably separate in origins and practice from classical Marxism, and is similar in outlook with Third World.The party was founded in Damascus in 1946 by the Syrian intellectuals Michel Aflaq, and Salah al-Bitar, and since its inception has established branches in different Arab countries, although the only countries it has ever held power in are Syria and Iraq. In Syria it has had a monopoly on political power since the party's 1963 coup. Baathists also seized power in Iraq in 1963, but were deposed some months later. They returned to power in a 1968 coup and remained the sole party until the 2003 Iraq invasion. Since then they have been banned in Iraq.In 1966 a coup d'état by the military against the historical leadership of Michel Aflaq and Salah Bitar led the Syrian and Iraqi parties to split into rival organizations — the Qotri (or Regionalist) Syria-based party and the Qawmi (or Nationalist) Iraq-based party. Both Baath parties retained the same name and maintained parallel structures in the Arab World, but became so antagonistic that the Syrian Baath regime became the only Arab government to support non-Arab Iran against Iraq during the bloody Iran-Iraq War.Underlying political philosophyThe motto of the Party—"Unity, Liberty, Socialism" was inspired by the French Jacobin political doctrine linking national unity and social equity, Unity refers to Arab unity, or Pan-Arabism; liberty emphasizes being free from foreign control and interference (self-determination); and socialism refers to Arab socialism, rather than to European socialism or communism. The idea that the national freedom and glory of the Arab Nation had been destroyed by Ottoman and Western imperialism was expounded on in Michel Aflaq’s works On the Way of Resurrection.Arab nationalism had been influenced by 19th Century mainland European thinkers, notably conservative German philosophers such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte of the Königsberg University Kantian School and French Positivists such as Auguste Comte and Professor Ernest Renan of the Collège de France in Paris. Tellingly, Baath party co-founders Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Bitar both studied at the Sorbonne in the early 1930s, at a time when Positivism was still the dominant ideology amongst France’s academic elite.The Kulturnation concept of Johann Gottfried Herder and the Grimm Brothers had a certain impact. Kulturnation defines a nationality more by a common cultural tradition and popular folklore than by national, political or religious boundaries and was considered by some as being more suitable for the German, Arab or Ottoman and Turkic countries.Germany was seen as an anti-colonial power and friend of the Arab world; cultural and economic exchange and infrastructure projects such as the Baghdad Railway supported that impression. According to Paul Berman, one of the early Arab nationalist thin (Wikipedia) - Baath

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    Tags:1968, Arab, Arabic, Baath, Baghdad, Baghdad Railway, Damascus, France, French, German, Germany, Iran, Iran-Iraq, Iran-Iraq War, Iraq, Iraqi, Lebanon, Marxism, Nationalist, Ottoman, Paris, Politics, Sorbonne, Sudan, Syria, Syrian, Wikipedia, Yemen


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