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اراک، ایران


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(Wikipedia) - Arak, Iran For the administrative subdivision, see Arak County. For the alcoholic drink, see Arak (drink). Arak اراک Country Province County Government  • Mayor Elevation Population (2011)  • Total Time zone  • Summer (DST) Website
city
Seal
Arak
Coordinates: 34°05′30″N 49°41′21″E / 34.09167°N 49.68917°E / 34.09167; 49.68917Coordinates: 34°05′30″N 49°41′21″E / 34.09167°N 49.68917°E / 34.09167; 49.68917
 Iran
Markazi
Central
Mohammad Ibrahim Abbasi
1,718 m (5,636 ft)
526,182
IRST (UTC+3:30)
IRDT (UTC+4:30)
http://arak.ir/

Arak  pronunciation (help·info) (Persian: اراک - Arāk‎), also knowns as Sultan Abad (Persian: سلطان آباد - Soltān Ābād‎), is a city in and the capital of Markazi Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 526,182, in 160,761 families.

Contents

HistoryNational Garden (central square) in 1969.

Arak is a village built on the ruins of a small town called Daskerah, which was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Persia.

Modern Arak is a relatively new village on fertile lands, reestablished in 1795 with primary construct ending in 1852. The new city was founded and financed during the Qajar era by an Iranian Georgian Yusef Khan e Gorji, a pro-Iranian Georgian warlord given refuge by Agha Mohammad Khan (Persian: محمد خان قاجار) (1742–1797) following a territorial dispute with his cousins who were supported by Imperial Russian Empress Catherine the Great.

In the period between 1795 and 1797, Yusef Khan e Gorji, renamed Yusef Khan e Sepahdar by the Shah, settled his army in the fertile though poorly-controlled territory that would become modern Arak. Hostile tribes in this region had operated autonomously from Qajar rule. With the Persian Shah''s approval, Yusef Khan diverted the main river to drive out the hostiles and built the Sultan Abad fortress, or Baladeh, a war fortress to act as a buffer and serve as the foundation of what would become modern Arak.

Yusef Khan''s organized military force was established in this region aptly named (or more accurately, re-named) "Persian Iraq" (Iraq e ajam) from ancient times meaning ''smooth land''. According to historians, Yusef Khan built Arak from his own personal income and with the aid of affluents.

Valiasr Square

The town would remain a military base and fortress until 1892. The Sultan Abad fortress had a thick wall surrounded by great moats, 7 meters deep. Eight towers were constructed around the town and the governmental building was established in its northern part.

In 1891, deputy governor, Etemad ol Saltane Mirza Hassan, repaired all of the shops, gardens and all government buildings in Sultan Abad''s greater town and with the owners of industries from other towns, settled in Arak. Large portions of the town were annexed as personal property to the pre-existing army commanders though these were ultimately turned over to the state from 1918–1922.

The evolution of the modern town name is from Sultan Abad fortress, to Sultan Abad, to Iraq e Ajam (Iraq of Persians), and finally to its current name, Arak, in 1938.

The city officially became a metropolis (Kalânşahr/کلانشهر) after the merger with Karahrud and Senjan occurred on April 6, 2013.

Location

The city is surrounded by mountains in the south, west, and east. Arak is located in adjacency two important cities: Qom and Isfahan. Its average altitude is 1750m above sea level and is 260 km from the capital, Tehran.

Climate

Arak has a continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa) that is, in general, relatively cold and dry. Its weather is warm and dry in summer, windy and cool in autumn, cold and snowy in winter, and mild in spring. The maximum temperature may raise up to 35 degrees Celsius in summer and may fall to below -25 degrees Celsius in winter. The average rainfall is around 350mm and the annual relative humidity is 46%.

Climate data for Arak Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Daily mean °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Avg. rainy days Avg. snowy days  % humidity Mean monthly sunshine hours
17.0 (62.6) 21.0 (69.8) 25.2 (77.4) 29.0 (84.2) 35.0 (95) 41.0 (105.8) 44.0 (111.2) 41.0 (105.8) 38.0 (100.4) 31.0 (87.8) 24.0 (75.2) 20.0 (68) 44 (111.2)
4.2 (39.6) 6.8 (44.2) 13.5 (56.3) 19.6 (67.3) 25.6 (78.1) 32.6 (90.7) 35.8 (96.4) 34.9 (94.8) 30.8 (87.4) 23.1 (73.6) 14.8 (58.6) 7.6 (45.7) 20.78 (69.39)
−1.3 (29.7) 1.0 (33.8) 7.3 (45.1) 13.1 (55.6) 18.4 (65.1) 24.4 (75.9) 27.5 (81.5) 26.3 (79.3) 21.9 (71.4) 15.2 (59.4) 8.0 (46.4) 2.0 (35.6) 13.65 (56.57)
−5.7 (21.7) −3.8 (25.2) 2.0 (35.6) 7.0 (44.6) 11.0 (51.8) 15.3 (59.5) 18.8 (65.8) 17.5 (63.5) 13.0 (55.4) 7.8 (46) 2.6 (36.7) −2.2 (28) 6.94 (44.48)
−28 (−18) −30.5 (−22.9) −13 (9) −4.0 (24.8) 0.0 (32) 4.0 (39.2) 12.0 (53.6) 10.0 (50) 2.0 (35.6) −4.0 (24.8) −7 (19) −23 (−9) −30.5 (−22.9)
54.7 (2.154) 47.6 (1.874) 53.1 (2.091) 53.4 (2.102) 31.9 (1.256) 1.5 (0.059) 0.6 (0.024) 1.1 (0.043) 0.7 (0.028) 18.5 (0.728) 31.6 (1.244) 51.0 (2.008) 345.7 (13.611)
10.8 9.8 11.4 9.4 7.1 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.6 4.3 6.1 8.9 71
7.6 6.4 3.2 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.7 4.6 23.1
72 67 55 46 40 28 27 27 27 40 56 67 46
150.8 160.6 196.0 222.1 287.5 350.4 338.3 329.4 305.1 262.3 188.5 160.8 2,951.8
Source: NOAA (1961-1990)
Transportation AirBoeing 707 on the new runway Arak international airport June 9, 2013

The city is served by the Arak International Airport, which is located north of the city. Arak International Airport opened in 1938 and is one of the oldest airports in Iran.

Rail

Since 1935, there is an railway connection between Arak form part of the Iranian Railways. Destinations served direct from bandare Emam To Bandaere Turkman in caspian sea.

Public transportation

Buses provide the bulk of local public transport.

Sites and structuresGrigory Church, opened in 1914Char Fasl BathKhomeini''s SeminaryParks and gardens Museums Sports Complexes Other Universities IAU College campusIndustries

Tags:Abbasi, Agha Mohammad Khan, Amir Kabir, Amirkabir, Arak, Arak, Iran, Azad, Celsius, Iran, Iranian, Iraq, Isfahan, Islamic, Islamic Azad University, Khan, Mehr, Mirza, Mongol, Persia, Persian, Qajar, Qom, Russian, Shah, Sultan, Tehran, Valiasr, Website, Wikipedia, Zoo


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