) - Afghanistan–Iran relations
| ||It has been suggested that Iran''s rights to the Helmand water be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2014. |
Afghanistan–Iran relations were established in 1935 during King Zahir Shah''s reign and the Pahlavi dynasty of Persia. They have been negatively affected by the 1979 Iranian Revolution and issues related to the 1978–present Afghan conflicts (i.e. Mujahideen, Afghan refugees, and Taliban), as well as Iran''s water dispute, the growing influence of the United States in Afghanistan, and the execution of thousands of Afghan prisoners in Iran.
- 1 Historical context
- 2 Diplomatic relations
- 2.1 Post-1979
- 2.2 Bilateral trade
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Afghanistan shares a relatively long history with Iran (called Persia before 1935). When the Safavid dynasty was founded in Persia, part of what is now Afghanistan was ruled by the Khanate of Bukhara and Babur from Kabulistan. The first Iranian Safavid Shah Shah Ismail I quickly expanded his empire in all directions, in which he also conquered large parts of nowadays Afghanistan. For centuries they ruled the region and the Safavids didn''t have any problems at first ruling the eastern most territories of their empire, but their policy towards non-Shia subjects became worse and worse over time. Wars began between the Shia Safavids and the larger Sunnis, particularly in the Old Kandahar region. By the late 17th century, the Safavids were heavily declining. They had appointed their Georgian subject Gurgin Khan as governor of Kandahar in order to forcefully convert the Afghans from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam. This went with much oppression and violence. It remained this way until the rise of Mir Wais Hotak, a well-respected Sunni Ghilzai Pashtun tribal chief. Mir Wais succeeded in defeating the declining Safavids in a succession of battles and declared southern Afghanistan a completely independent country. His son Mahmud conquered Persia for a short time in 1722, while it was ridden by civil strife and foreign interests from the Safavids their arch rivals, the Ottomans and the Russians. and soon after the Safavid dynasty ended.
Despite these event of the past, there are some cultural ties between the two nations. As an eastern dialect of Persian, Dari is the second official language of Afghanistan. It is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan. Many in Afghanistan celebrate Nowruz, a pre-Islamic Iranian spring celebration celebrated in many countries and regions in the world, of which the main representative is Iran.
Afghanistan signed a treaty of friendship with Iran in 1921, when the country was ruled by King Amanullah Khan and Iran was still under the Qajar dynasty. In September 1961 ties between two countries were broken off and resumed in May 1963. Prior to 1979, the year in which both Iran underwent the Iranian Revolution and Afghanistan was invaded by the Soviet Union, the issue of water rights of the Helmand River were an issue of great importance between the two nations. Disputes over the Helmand water are noted in the 1870s, flaring again after the river changed course in 1896. In 1939, the kings of the two countries signed an accord to share water rights, which was signed but never ratified; this was repeated in 1973 with a treaty between the prime ministers of both nations, and again not ratified.
In December 1979, the Soviet Union sent around 100,000 troops to the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan to assist the PDPA government against a nationwide mujahideen insurgency. The mujahideen were made up of various groups that were trained by the Pakistani and Iranian armies. Relations between Afghanistan and Iran quickly deteriorated. During the same year, President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was executed in neighboring Pakistan and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown by the Iranian Revolution. The Iranian consulate in Afghanistan closed, as did the Afghan consulate in Iran. In 1985, Iran urged Afghan Shia groups to unite and oppose the Government of Afghanistan. Iran supported the mujahideen rebels and provided various types of assistances to them who pledged loyalty to the Iranian Revolution. In the meantime, over a million Afghan refugees were allowed to enter Iran.
Following the emergence of the Taliban government and their harsh treatment of Afghanistan''s minorities, Iran stepped up assistance to the Northern Alliance. Relations with the Taliban deteriorated further in 1998 after Taliban forces seized the Iranian consulate in the northern Afghan city of Mazar-i-Sharif and executed Iranian diplomats.Hamid Karzai
Since late 2001, the new Afghan government under Hamid Karzai has engaged in cordial relations with both Iran and the United States, even as relations between the United States and Iran have grown strained due to American objections to Iran''s nuclear program. Iran was a key factor in the overthrow of the Taliban and has since helped revive Afghanistan''s economy and infrastructure. It re-opened the Iranian Embassy in Kabul and its associated consulates in other Afghan cities. In the meantime, Iran joined the reconstruction of Afghanistan. Most of its contributions are aimed at developing the Afghan Shi''a communities, especially the ethnic Hazaras and Qizilbash. Iran also has influence on political parties represented by ethnic Tajiks, which includes Abdullah Abdullah''s Coalition for Change and Hope and others. On the contrary, many Afghan politicians and experts claim that both Iran and Pakistan are working to weaken Afghanistan. In 2006, Afghan President Hamid Karzai warned that "Iran and Pakistan and others are not fooling anyone" when it comes to interfering in his country.
"If they don''t stop, the consequences will be … that the region will suffer with us equally. In the past we have suffered alone; this time everybody will suffer with us.… Any effort to divide Afghanistan ethnically or weaken it will create the same thing in the neighboring countries. All the countries in the neighborhood have the same ethnic groups that we have, so they should know that it is a different ball game this time."
Besides Afghan law makers, leaders in the United States and many NATO officials also believe that Iran is meddling in Afghanistan by playing a double game. Iran usually denies these accusations. For a number of years many senior ISAF officials and others have been accusing Iran of supplying and training the Taliban insurgents.
"We did interdict a shipment, without question the Revolutionary Guard''s core Quds Force, through a known Taliban facilitator. Three of the individuals were killed... Iranians certainly view as making life more difficult for us if Afghanistan is unstable. We don''t have that kind of relationship with the Iranians. That''s why I am particularly troubled by the interception of weapons coming from Iran. But we know that it''s more than weapons; it''s money; it''s also according to some reports, training at Iranian camps as well."
—General David PetraeusAfghan Consul General met with the Mayor of MashhadAfghan Pilgrims in Mashhad
, Imam Reza shrine
The government of Iran is strongly against the American military presence in Afghanistan. Iranian officials often criticize specifically the American military in Afghanistan despite that there are also around 50,000 European and other peace keeping troops.
"The Americans will have the same success in Afghanistan as in Vietnam. Years ago the Soviet Union made exactly the same mistake. Many people were killed and it finally pulled out. History repeats itself. We know Afghanistan. We know that Afghanistan will never submit to foreign armies."
, July 2010
Ties between Afghanistan and Iran became further strained in recent years due to Iran''s toughened immigration policy, hastening the repatriation of many Afghan asylum seekers. A number of Afghans were executed by hanging in the public for crimes punishable with death in Iran (murder, rape, smuggling large amount of drugs, and armed robbery) which sparked angry demonstrations in Afghanistan. Between 2010 and 2011, Afghan and Iranian security forces were involved in border skirmish in Nimroz Province of Afghanistan. In July 2011, Iran decided to cut off electricity exports to Afghanistan''s Nimroz Province. In March 2012, Najibullah Kabuli, leader of the National Participation Front (NPF) of Afghanistan, accused three senior leaders of Iran''s Revolutionary Guards of plotting to assassinate him. Some members of the Afghan Parliament accuses Iran of setting up Taliban bases in several Iranian cities, and that "Iran is directly involved in fanning ethnic, linguistic and sectarian tensions in Afghanistan." There are constant reports about Iran''s Revolutionary Guards training Afghans inside Iran to carry out terrorist attacks in Afghanistan.
"Currently, the Revolutionary Guards recruit young people for terrorist activities in Afghanistan and try to revive the Hezb-i-Islami Afghanistan led by Gulbadin Hekmatyar and Taliban groups"
—Syed Kamal, a self-confessed agent for Iran''s Revolutionary Guards and member of Sipah-i-Mohmmad
Afghanistan has an embassy in Tehran and a consulate in Mashad. In order to prohibit Afghans coming into the country bringing mostly crime and problems with them, as of 2007, Iran charges Afghans over $100 US dollars for a one month regular visa and a business visa costs them over $3,000 US dollars. Before 2007, the visa was issued with only $35 fee.
Bilateral tradeDelaram–Zaranj Highway in Zaranj, in the Nimruz Province of Afghanistan, near the border between with Iran.
Trade between the two nations has increased dramatically since the overthrow of the Taliban government in late 2001. Iran and Afghanistan plan on building a new rail line connecting Mashhad to Herat. In 2009, Iran was one of the largest investor in Afghanistan, which is mainly in the construction of roads and bridges as well as agriculture and health care.
According to the chairman of Afghanistan Chamber of Commerce and Industries, Iran''s exports to Afghanistan in 2008 stood at $800 million. IRNA quoted Mohammad Qorban Haqju as saying that Iran imported $4 million worth of products like fresh and dried fruits, minerals, precious stones, and spices from the neighboring country. He said that Iran exported oil products, cement, construction material, carpets, home appliances, and detergents. Iran imported nuts, carpets, agricultural products as well as handicrafts from Afghanistan. Afghanistan imports 90 percent of its needs, except agricultural products.
Afghanistan is a major opium producer. Afghanistan produces 90% of world''s heroin. Some of these drugs are smuggled into Iran and from there to European countries.
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