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    * Admiral *

    دریاسالار


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    (Wikipedia) - Admiral For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation).
    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2008)
    See also: Admiralty Common anglophone military ranks Navies Armies Air forces Officers Seamen, soldiers and airmen
    Admiral of the fleet Marshal or Field marshal Marshal of the air force
    Admiral General Air chief marshal
    Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal
    Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal
    Commodore Brigadier Air commodore
    Captain Colonel Group captain
    Commander Lieutenant colonel Wing commander
    Lieutenant commander Major or Commandant Squadron leader
    Lieutenant Captain Flight lieutenant
    Sub-lieutenant Lieutenant Flying officer
    Ensign Second lieutenant Pilot officer
    Midshipman Officer cadet Officer cadet
    Warrant officer Sergeant major or Warrant officer Warrant officer
    Petty officer Sergeant Sergeant
    Leading seaman Corporal Corporal
    Seaman Private Aircraftman
    Flag officers: Senior officers: Junior officers:
    Naval officer ranks

    Admiral of the fleet • Fleet admiral • Grand admiral Admiral • General admiral Vice admiral • Squadron vice-admiral • Lieutenant admiral Rear admiral • Counter admiral • Divisional admiral Commodore • Flotilla admiral

    Captain • Capt at sea • Capt of sea and war • Ship-of-the-line Capt Commander • Frigate captain Lieutenant commander • Corvette captain

    Captain lieutenant • Lieutenant • Ship-of-the-line lieutenant Frigate lieutenant • Lieutenant (junior grade) • Sub-lieutenant Corvette lieutenant • Ensign Midshipman

    Admiral (Arabic: أمير البحر or أدميرال the prince of the sea) is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. The rank usually refers to the position of full admiral (equivalent to full general) and above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet (or fleet admiral). It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM". Where relevant, admiral has a NATO code of OF-9, and is a four-star rank.

    Contents

    Etymology

    The word "admiral" in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from Arabic "amir", or amir-al- أمير الـ, "commander of the" (as in amir-al-baHr أمير البحر "commander of the sea"). Crusaders learned the term during their encounters with the Muslim Arabs, perhaps as early as the 11th century.

    The Norman Roger II of Sicily (1095–1154), employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who previously had served as a naval commander for several North African Moslem rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as "Amir of Amirs", i.e. "Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as "ammiratus ammiratorum".

    The Sicilians and later Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, amiral, from their Aragon opponents. The French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante. As the word was used by people speaking Latin or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling "admyrall" in the 14th century and to "admiral" by the 16th century.

    The word "admiral" has today come to be almost exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world''s navies, equivalent to the army rank of (full) general. However, this wasn''t always the case; for example, in some European countries prior to the end of World War II, admiral was the third highest naval rank after general admiral and grand admiral.

    The rank of admiral has also been subdivided into various grades, several of which are historically extinct while others remain in use in most present day navies. The Royal Navy used colours (red, white, and blue, in descending order) to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864; for example, Horatio Nelson''s highest rank was vice admiral of the white. The generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer. Some navies have also used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian "general at sea".

    Admiral insignia by country

    The rank insignia for an admiral often involves four stars and/or 3 stripes/rings over a broad stripe/ring, but as one can see below, there are many cases where the insignia do not involve four stars.

    National ranks

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