The Iranian History Era :

Hotaki Dynasty (1722 - 1729) AD

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March, 8, 1722 A.D.:
Royal Army Defeated By Ghilzai Chieftains

The uprising of Mahmoud Ghandahari which was provoked by India was the prelude to the downfall of the Safavid dynasty. While Sultan Hossein was entertaining in his harem, tribal Afghan forces could easily proceed towards west to the heart of the Persian empire with no resistance. The king marched ag... Read Full Article:


August, 23, 1722 A.D.:
Darband Captured By Russians

The declining Safavi dynasty gave Russians the opportunity to invade Persian territory. A quest that challenged Persian hegemony in the region and later ended with Iranians losing sovereignty. Taking advantage of civil disorder in Iran, Peter the great, deployed 22,000 men and his newly built Caspia... Read Full Article:


October, 12, 1722 A.D.:
Epic Fall Of Safavid Capital Isfahan

After a long siege Isfahan surrendered to Afghan forces. The people of Kandahar had been loyal Iranians until 1709 when due to weakness in leadership of King Sultan Hossein, injustice and corruption made them stage uprisings asking for autonomy. After invading Isfahan, Amir Mahmoud killed more than ... Read Full Article:


April, 12, 1723 A.D.:
Mir Mahmoud Forces Defeated In Qazvin

After the fall of the Safavi dynasty and capture of capital Isfahan, crown prince Tahmasp Mirza fled to Qazvin and proclaimed king with crown name Shah Tahmasp 2. Amir Mahmoud of Kandahar who had imprisoned most of the royal family, sent his army to suppress the uprising. His army was trapped in Qaz... Read Full Article:


June, 26, 1723 A.D.:
Russians Capture Baku

In the midst of a civil war in Iran and circumstances that led to fall of the Safavi dynasty, Russian troops took advantage of the situation and captured the city of Baku. Meanwhile most Iranian territories became the stage of chaos and human tragedies that followed the capture of capital Isfahan by... Read Full Article:


September, 12, 1723 A.D.:
Iran Surrenders Gilan And Mazandaran

In the midst of a turmoil that started with invasion of Hotaki warlords into Iran, Isfahan, the Safavid capital fell on Oct, 12, 1722. Meanwhile, Russians and Ottomans used the opportunity to invade Caucasia.On August 23, 1722 the Russian army captured strategic city of Derbent. With little or no re... Read Full Article:


August, 31, 1724 A.D.:
Ottomans Capture Hamedan

As Afghans were plundering the cities of Iran and Russians advanced to take all Iranian provinces along the Caspian Sea, Ottomans also sought the opportunity to take a bite of the dead Safavid Empire. After defeating the remaining Safavid garrisons, the Ottomans captured Hamedan. The Azerbaijan fron... Read Full Article:


October, 4, 1724 A.D.:
Ottomans And Russians Divide Iran

After the fall of the Safavid Empire and during a period of chaos inside Iran, Russians and Ottomans capture northern Iranian territories. Negotiations started between the two states on Jan, 15, 1724. With French ambassador's mediation an agreement was reached on June, 24th by which Ottomans took Ge... Read Full Article:


November, 29, 1727 A.D.:
Mashhad Liberated By Nader's Army

Shah Tahmasp was wandering in Margiana when he heard Nader's victory over a usurper named Melek in Khorasan but he knew that Nader's army was not big enough to set a siege against Melek's artillery. He sent a messenger inviting Nader to accompany his forces. Nader set out instantly, and met the Shah... Read Full Article:


July, 27, 1728 A.D.:
Nader Begins Ariana Expedition

On July, 27, 1728, Nader Shah set out upon an expedition against the Afghan warlords, who had penetrated into Khorasan. He took the Behadin fortress in Sep, 9th and captured Sancan castle on 22nd when he heard the news of 7-8 thousand Afghan soldiers marching from Herat. Nader Shah used this opportu... Read Full Article:


September, 20, 1729 A.D.:
The Battle Of Damghan

When Ashraf Afghan heard that Nader had set out for Herat, he thought of it as a good opportunity to plunder Mashhad. Nader's army quickly reached Khorasan on July, 13, 1729 and he set his artillery in the field and waited. But the Ashraf army did not dare attack Mashhad and they kept on plundering ... Read Full Article:


December, 20, 1729 A.D.:
Tahmasp Restored To Throne In Isfahan

After Nader's decisive victory at Mehmandoost, Nader came in sight of the enemy stationed at an advantagous position on a hill near Isfahan on the evening of Nov, 12. Nader sent his best Kurdish men for surveillence. They slew about four hundred of the rebels, and returned at night with several pris... Read Full Article:


July, 27, 1730 A.D.:
Afghan Prince Beseiges Mashhad

After Nader liberated Hamedan and Tabriz, he was moving his army towards Erivan when he heard the news that Prince Hossein had laid a siege on Mashhad. His brother Zoheireddoleh was ordered to avoid a battle with the Afghans: but he neglected the order and engaged the besiegers on Jul, 27, 1730. Aft... Read Full Article:


September, 15, 1731 A.D.:
Sultan Tahmasp 2. Defeated By Ottomans

In Nader's absence, Shah Tahmasp 2 decided to gain his part of the glory and attempted an unsuccessful attack on Erivan in March 1731. Without success, on his way back, he was intercepted by an Ottoman army who inflicted heavy loss on the Iranian army on Sep, 15th. Commanded by Ali Pasha, the Ottoma... Read Full Article:


January, 10, 1732 A.D.:
Persian-Ottoman Peace Treaty

There was a peace treaty signed on January, 10, 1732 between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Persia.In the 17th century, a stalemate between the Ottoman and Safavid empires had been reached by the treaties of Sarab and Zuhab. However, during the short rule of Afghanistan based Hotaki dynasty, cha... Read Full Article:


January, 21, 1732 A.D.:
Russians Withdraw From Iranian Territories

According to an official note submitted to Iranian authorities in Rasht, the Russians nullified their 1724 agreement with Ottomans in which Iran was divided between the two states as a result of a turmoil at the end of the Safavi dynasty. An ambassador from the Russian court arrived in Mashhad on Ma... Read Full Article:


August, 18, 1732 A.D.:
8 Month Old Abbas Becomes King

While Nader was on a mission to Herat, Shah Tahmasp dared attack Erivan. Without success, on his way back, he was intercepted by an Ottoman army who inflicted heavy loss on the Iranian army. When Shah Tahmasp and few of his officers returned to Isfahan, Ottomans seized Tabriz and Hamedan that was ta... Read Full Article:


January, 12, 1733 A.D.:
Baghdad Under Nader Siege

One of Nader's interesting tactics was to take the war outside Iran by threatening Ottomans inside their own field territory. Nader commanded restless cavalry units that could pass deserts and mountains at an incredible speed of 100 kilometers per day. This way he could secure strongholds while his ... Read Full Article:


December, 2, 1733 A.D.:
Second Siege Of Baghdad Ends In Peace

Nader's ambition of driving the Turks from the Persian frontiers required having a winning card against Ottomans. On Feb, 8, Nader passed Tigris on a raft with 2500 men. The governor of Baghdad who was watching his motions sent 30000 men against him with a formidable train of artillery; upon which e... Read Full Article:


June, 14, 1734 A.D.:
The Turkish War

When an Ottoman messenger arrived with a letter from Sultan Mahmoud that he could not consider the convention with the governor of Baghdad as definitive, and that Abdollah his plenipotentiary and commander in chief was on a mission to Mesopotamia, it was clear that a war was imminent. Nader set foot... Read Full Article:

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The large Ottoman army with seventy thousand horse, and fifty thousand foot reached a spacious plain near Erivan, called Baghavard. Nader with no more than fifteen thousand men appeared on the opposite side of the plain. At dawn the Ottomans who outnumbered them eight to one, marched against Iranian... Read Full Article:


February, 26, 1736 A.D.:
Nader Ascends The Throne

Nader was ruling Iran as the regent of the young king Abbas who passed away at the time when Nader had restored the kingdom of Persia to its former splendor. Noblemen from all over the country were invited to a meeting in Moghan on Jan, 12, 1936 to decide on the faith of the country. Thus Nader was ... Read Full Article:

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