By: Mir M.Hosseini
Capitulation was a privilege known for some foreign citizens giving them total immunity from trial in Iran. During the Qajar dynasty, Russians and British were at the top of the list of citizens who enjoyed the right. Capitulation was one of the essential tools for modern time colonization, however it is totally against national sovereignty of every country; because foreign citizens could commit any crime including assassination without the local authorities being able to arrest or bring them to justice. Such cases could only be settled in foreign consulates.
One year later on May, 10, 1928, Iranians were celebrating cancellation of capitulation as a national victory. Capitulation, partially came back to Iran in 1960s silently under the Pahlavi 2 giving American military officers same privileges. This coincides with the dark pages of CIA's conspiracies all over the world resulting in coups, kidnappings, torture, and general violation of civil rights. When it became a law passed by the parliament it triggered public uprisings. With the 1979 revolution, such agreements became history.