By: Mir M.Hosseini
Cities in Ariana were sometimes easy targets for invaders. There were sporadic Attacks by tribal leaders in the neighboring area.
Ali Mardan Khan was the Safavid governor of Kandahar. Because he was not truthful in reporting revenues, he was summoned by Shah Tahmasp to appear at the court, but avoided doing so. On being dismissed from office he surrendered Kandahar to Mughal king Shah Jahan and his sons in 1638, and took refuge in Delhi. He was honored at the Mughal court. Ali Mardan Khan was later appointed governor of Kashmir, Kabul and Lahore.
In this context, there are different accounts of Mughals capturing the city of Kandahar in 1638, even by force or because of mutiny anyways prompting retaliation of the Safavid Empire which had always militarily assisted Mughals specially Shah Jahangir to regain his throne.
In the summer of 1648 Shah Abbas 2nd personally marched from Isfahan with an army of 40,000 and after capturing Bost he laid siege to Kandahar on Jan, 3, 1649 and captured it on February 22nd.
The Mughals attempted to retake Kandahar in 1650, 1651, 1652, and 1653. During those invasions, the fortified city could hold against a siege but the area was not enough populated to have an army of its own. In that case only military units in Garrison of Herat and Kerman were dispatched to disperse invaders. In rare occasions, Special Forces stationed in the Arg of Bam were used. The strong military mobilization in 1649 during which cannons had been used had caused heavy damage on the aggressive Mughal Indians, therefore next attacks were of less importance.