By: Mir M.Hosseini
When the forces of Alexander and his general Parmenion joined at Pillar of Jonah, Dariush 3rd forces were on their back passing the Armenian gate. The two armies clashed on the coastal plain. When Alexander charged his cavalry from the right, he could easily pass the Persian army barrier from behind.
Because of the uneven terrain, the phalanx units could not move fast and soon Alexander came face to face with Dariush 3's chariot after his guards were annihilated. His younger brother Oxyathres endangered his own life for him to escape and thus saved the king's life. The news of the king deserting the battlefield demoralized the soldiers as a prey to the Macedonians. Between 10,000 to 20,000 Persian casualties is estimated. The battle of Issus was the first from three battles deserted by the Persian king that ended with the fall of the Persian Empire.
Dariush 3rd abandoned his entire family at the site as he fled from Alexander, including his wife Statira, his mother Sisygambis, and his daughters Barsineh and Drypteis.