The Iranian History Article :

Second Russian Ultimatum

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November, 28, 1911 A.D.:
Second Russian Ultimatum

By: Mir M.Hosseini


Russia gave its first ultimatum to Iran on Nov, 11, 1911 which resulted in resignation of the government. However, Iran's backing up from confiscation of Shoaossaltaneh's properties and an official apology did not satisfy Tzarist Russia. On Nov, 28, 1911 a second ultimatum was given to Iran by which Russia demanded:
- Deportation of Morgan Shuster and Lecoffre.
- Assurance not to employ foreign nationals without Russia and Britain's consent.
- Payment of ransom for Russia's deployment of troops.
A 48 hour deadline was set for Iran to presen the note to the parliament which naturally rejected Russian demands.
When Russian troops in Anzali proceeded towards Qazvin, the cabinet presented its resignation which was rejected by Nayebossaltaneh due to the fact that nobody else dared accept the duty, moreover it would have given Russians the opportunity to bring back their puppet king Mohammad Ali Shah to power.
Britain opposed Russia for the first time since the 1907 agreement, luckily due to high risk in its interests in southern oil fields. This leaded to negotiations in Paris that softened Russia's tone which agreed to suffice with deportation of Morgan Shuster and drop other demands. However, Majlis did not step back when Russians captured Qazvin on Dec, 15, and gave Iran another six days to act. The government was left with no choice but to take the parliament under siege and declare its dissolution.
Morgan Shuster left Iran on Jan, 11, 1912.
Russian troops remained in Iran and continued atrocities in northern provinces. On Dec, 31, 1911, Seghatoleslam, a senior cleric and his followers were hanged. Tabriz was set on fire and many civilians were killed.



KEY TERMS:Anzali , Britain , Iran , Lecoffre , Majlis , Mohammad Ali Shah , Morgan Shuster , Nayebossaltaneh , Paris , Qazvin , Russia , Russian , Second , Seghatoleslam , Shah , Shoaossaltaneh , Tabriz , Tzarist


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